World History Chapter 4

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Vocab

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Knossos

Vast palace where rulers of this trading empire lived

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Shrines

Areas dedicated to the honor of gods and goddesses

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Frescoes

Watercolor paintings

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Trojan War

War that took place around 1250 B.C.; Mycenaeans are best remembered for their part

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Straits

Narrow water passages

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Homer

Poet who lived about 750 B.C.; credited for writing Iliad and the Odyssey

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Polis

City-state

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Acropolis

High city

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Citizens

Free residents

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Monarchy

A government in which a hereditary ruler exercises central power

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Aristocracy

Rule by hereditary landholding elite

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Oligarchy

Power is in the hands of a small, wealthy elite

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Phalanx

A massive tactical formation of heavily armed foot soldiers

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Sparta

City-state built by the Dorians

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Athens

Located in Attica; just north of the Peloponnesus

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Democracy

Government by the people

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Tyrants

People who gained power by force

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Legislature

Lawmaking body

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Alliance

A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense

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Pericles

Able statesman who provided a golden age for Athens after the Persian War

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Direct Democracy

System in which citizens take part directly in the day-to-day affairs of government

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Stipend

Fixed salary

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Jury

A panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final judgement in a trial

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Ostracism

Vote to banish, or send away, a public figure whom they saw as a threat to their democracy

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Philosophers

Thinkers who used observation and reason to find causes for events; means "lovers of wisdom"

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Logic

Rational thinking

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Rhetoric

The art of skillful speaking

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Socrates

An Athenian stonemason and philosopher; outspoken critic of the Sophists

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Plato

Student of Socrates; where most of what we know about Socrates comes from

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Aristotle

Plato's most famous student; developed his own ideas about government

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Parthenon

A temple dedicated to the goddess Athena

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Tragedies

Plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster

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Comedies

Humorous plays that mocked people or customs

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Herodotus

Often called the "Father of History" in the Western world because he went beyond listing names of rulers or the retelling of ancient legends

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Alexander the Great

Architect in the new era of Greek culture spreading from the Mediterranean to the borders of India

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Phillip II

Lived in Thebes and had come to admire Greek culture; later hired Aristotle as a tutor to his young son Alexander

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Assassination

Murder of a public figure

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Assimilated

Absorbed

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Alexandria

City in Egypt that was the very heart of the Hellenistic world

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Pythagoras

Derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle

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Heliocentric

Sun-centered

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Archimedes

Most famous Hellenistic scientist; applied principles of physics to make practical inventions

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Hippocrates

Greek physician who studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures

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Section 1 and 2 Powerpoint: Early People of the Aegean and Rise of the Greek City-States

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Phoenicians

Minoans were a part of this group of people

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Crete

Minoan civilization was on the island of

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Greeks

Minoans influenced _____ living on the mainland

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Egyptians, Sumerians

Traded with _____ and _____

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Outposts

Set up _____ around Mediterranean Sea

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Knossos

Rulers lived at

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Shrines

Had palaces and religious _____

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Frescoes

Walls were covered in _____; paintings depicted Minoan life

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Volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, invade by Mycenaeans

What are possible explanations for why Minoans disappeared?

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Mycenaeans

Essentially the first Greeks

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Sea traders

Were _____ like Minoans

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Aegean

Mycenaeans civilization stretched beyond the

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Minoans (writing)

Mycenaeans learned skills from

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City-states

Lived in _____ on the mainland each with a king

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Dorians

_____ (invaders from the north) replace them after their decline

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Troy, Mycenae, Mediterranean, Black Sea

Trojan War was Economic rivalry between _____ and _____; wanted control over straits connecting _____ and the _____

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  • Caused by Paris kidnapping Helen

  • 10 years they battle

  • The result was that Troy was burned to the ground

Greek Legend of Trojan War

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Iliad, Odyssey

Historians get most of their information from _____ and _____

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Homer

Iliad and Odyssey are credited to _____ (blind poet)

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Orally

The Iliad and Odyssey were passed _____ until finally written down

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Greek

These stories gave an idea about _____ values

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Honor, courage, strength, and eloquence

Greek values

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River Valleys

People settled in

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Balkan Peninsula

This separated different valleys; mountainous; cut off city-states from each other; led to rivalry and even war

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Mediterranean Sea

Provided a link to the outside world

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Traded, set up colonies

Greeks _____ and _____; spreading and absorbing ideas

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Polis

Greek city-state

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Acropolis

Highest and most fortified point of the city-state

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Small

City-states had _____ populations; created a close community

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Polis

_____ had a king; established a monarchy

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Aristocracy

Power then switches to noble landowners, this is known as

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Oligarchy

Power then switches to wealthy merchants, this is known as

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Iron

This replaced bronze

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Phalanx

New tactical method; reduced class differences

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Dorians

Built the city-state of Sparta

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Slaves

Turned conquered people into _____; also called helots

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Strict

Sparta creates a _____ system because helots outnumber them

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Two kings and council of elders; assembly made up of citizens (Spartan male over age of 30)

Government of Sparta society

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  • Every boy is trained from childhood

  • Rigid discipline and tough exercise

Military state of Sparta

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Soldiers

Women's main job is to produce

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Rigid

Women had _____ exercise and must be obedient to husbands; could inherit property and run house when husband was away

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Yes

Did Sparta isolate themselves away from other Greek city-states?

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Monarchy, aristocracy

Athens evolved from a _____ to an _____

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Nobles

Citizens were resentful of _____; demanded change

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Democracy

Athens then moves to a _____; means government by the people; different meaning to the Greeks than us today

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Solon's reforms

Chief official

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Grant more citizenship, assemble more of a voice, and encouraged exports;

Solon's reforms included...

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Citizenship was still reserved for the wealthy

Why were people still discontent with Solon's reform?

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Tyrants

Gained power by force

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Imposed much needed reforms, pushed towards a democracy, created a legislature, gave citizens more say in the government

Not all tyrants were bad; some good things tyrants did include...

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Limited

Athenian democracy was quite _____

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Landowning men

Citizenship was restricted to _____; excluded women, merchants, slaves, etc.

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Yes

Were Athenians given more say in decision making than any other ancient civilization?

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Men, religion, household

In Athenian society, Women must be guided by _____, played a role in _____, and for the most part were confined to the _____

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No

Were girls allowed to go to school and get an education?

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