UCI Bio 93 Midterm 2 (copy)

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What is a metabolic pathway?

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178 Terms

1

What is a metabolic pathway?

A pathway that a molecule goes through, resulting in a specific product.

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2

What is metabolism?

The totality of an organisms chemical reactions

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3

Gibbs free energy

Portion of a system that can perform work when temp and pressure are uniform throughout the system.

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4

What is a way to show change in free energy?

knowt flashcard image
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5

What does a negative Delta G mean?

A process that is spontaneous

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6

What does spontaneous mean?

Means that a process will occur.

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7

What happens to the energy in a exergonic reaction?

It is released

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8

What happens to the energy in an endergonic reaction?

It is consumed in the reaction.

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9

True or False

A cell must have endergonic and exergonic reactions

True

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10

Is ATP Hydrolysis an exergonic or endergonic reaction?

Exergonic

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11

Mechanical and Transport work are what kind of reactions?

Endergonic

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12

Why does ATP hydrolysis release so much energy?

All 3 phosphate groups ate neg. charged, so there is mutual repulsion within all of them

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13

What do enzymes do?

Lower energy barriers to drive chemical reactions

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14

What does the suffix -ase usually mean?

An enzyme

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15

How does an exergonic energy profile look like?

knowt flashcard image
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16

Enzymes are biological ___________

Catalysts

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17

What is the site of cellular respiration in all eukaryotic cells?

Mitochondria

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18

In Biology, what is another word for the addition of electrons to a substance?

Reduction

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19

In Biology, what is another word for the loss of electrons to a substance?

Oxidation

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20

What is cellular respiration?

Catabolic reactions used to generate ATP

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21

Where does glycolysis happen?

In the cytosol

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22

What is glycolysis?

The breaking down of glucose into 2 molecules of a compound of pyruvate.

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23

What happens in the citric acid cycle?

The breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide is completed.

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24

What is stage 1 of cellular respiration?

Glycolysis

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25

What is stage 2 of cellular respiration?

Pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle

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26

What is stage 3 of cellular respiration?

Oxidative Phosphorylation

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27

What is the purpose of NADH?

Transfers electrons from food to electron transport chain.

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28

Pyruvate is converted to what compound?

Acetyl CoA

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29

Where does the citric acid cycle occur?

In the mitochondrial matrix

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30

What happens in substrate-level phosphorylation?

A substrate gives a phosphate to ADP, making a product and ATP

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31

Where does oxidative phosphorylation happen?

The inner mitochondrial membrane

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32

About how many ATP/Glucose is made during cellular respiration?

30-32

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33

What is ATP Synthase?

An enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphates.

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34

What is chemiosmosis?

energy stored as a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work.

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35

Establishing the H+ gradient is a major function of what?

The electron transport chain

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36

What 2 processes can oxidize organic fuel and generate ATP without oxygen?

Fermentation and anaerobic respiration

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37

What is the distinction between fermentation and anaerobic respiration?

Anaerobic respiration uses the electron transport chain

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38

What is anaerobic respiration?

A process of harvesting chemical energy WITHOUT oxygen.

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39

What, simply, happens in alcohol fermentation?

Pyruvate is converted into ethanol.

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40

What happens in lactic acid fermentation?

Pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate

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41

What is lactate?

The ionized form of lactic acid

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42

How much ATP does fermentation yield?

2

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43

What are obligate anaerobes?

Organisms that only carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration.

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44

What are catabolic pathways?

Chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into energy and smaller molecules

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45

What are anabolic pathways?

When energy is used to make smaller molecules into a larger molecules

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46

What type of metabolic reaction releases energy?

Catabolic

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47

What is the first law of thermodynamics?

The energy in the universe is constant. Cannot be created or destroyed

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48

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

Every energy transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe.

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49

A spontaneous reaction is a type of reaction that leads to ___________

An increase in entropy

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50

What is a type of reaction that decreases the entropy of the universe?

A non spontaneous reaction

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51

What is enthalpy?

The total energy of a biological system

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52

What is free energy?

The usable energy that is able to perform work

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53

What is the equation to find change in free energy?

knowt flashcard image
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54

If Delta G<1 then it is a _________ reaction

Exergonic

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55

If Delta G>1, then it is a __________ reaction

Endergonic

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56

What are autotrophs?

Organisms that can sustain themselves without eating other organisms.

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57

Plants are what kind of autotroph?

Photoautotrophs

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58

What are heterotrophic organisms?

Organisms that eat other organisms

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59

What is the mesophyll?

The tissue in the interior of the leaf

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60

What are stomata?

Microscopic pores on the leaf

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61

What is the dense fluid in a chloroplast?

Stroma

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62

What are the small sacs within the Stroma?

Thylakoids

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63

What is a stack of thylakoids called?

A grana (granum)

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64

What is the green pigment that gives plants their color?

Chlorophyll

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65

What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?

Light reactions and the Calvin Cycle

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66

What is the process called when a light reaction makes ATP, using chemiosmosis to add a phosphate to ADP?

Photophosphorylation

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67

What happens during the light reactions in photosynthesis?

Solar energy is converted into chemical energy

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68

What are the names of the 2 types of photosystems in light reactions?

Photosystem I and Photosystem II

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69

What is a photosystem composed of?

A reaction-center complex and light harvesting complexes.

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70

Chloroplast and Mitochondria both use what process to generate ATP?

Chemiosmosis

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71

What is the name of the sugar that is produced by the Calvin Cycle?

G3P

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72

What are the 3 stages of the Calvin Cycle?

  1. Carbon Fixation

  2. Reduction 3.Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor

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73

What happens during carbon fixation?

A CO2 molecule is attached to an RuBP sugar and then splits in half to make 2 molecules of 3-Phosphoglycerate

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74

What is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation?

Rubisco

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75

Where are chlorophyll molecules found?

Thylakoid membrane

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76

What is fluorescence?

Emission of a photon of light.

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77

What is transformation in DNA genetics?

A change in the genotype and phenotype

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78

What is the name of a virus that infects bacteria?

Bacteriophages

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79

What is a shorter name for Bacteriophages?

Phages

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80

What is the name of the 4 nucleotides of DNA?

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine

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81

What is Chargaff's rule?

The percentages of A and T, and G and C are roughly equal.

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82

What is the name of the process that Rosalind Franklin used to make a picture of DNA?

X-Ray Crystallography

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83

What are the 3 models of DNA Replication?

Conservative, Semi- Conservative, and Dispersive

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84

What happens at the origin of replication?

The 2 DNA Strands are separated, making a replication bubble.

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85

What kind of structure does DNA make?

A double helix

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86

In base pairing, what 2 structures have to be paired together?

1 purine and 1 pyrimidine

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87

DNA replication follows what model?

Semi-Conservative

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88

Where does the replication of chromosomes start?

Origins of replication

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89

What are helicases?

Enzymes that untwist the double helix

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90

What are the 3 steps of glycolysis?

Energy Investment, Energy Payoff, and net output phase

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91

How many net ATP does glycolysis make?

2

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92

Why is pyruvate important?

It assists in making Acetyl coA

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93

Is Glycolysis anaerobic or anaerobic?

Both

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94

What is the ratio when 1 pyruvate is broken down.

1:1:1

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95

What is 1 pyruvate broken down into?

1 CO2 1 NADH 1 Acetyl CoA

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96

In Glycolysis, in what step does substrate-level phosphorylation occur?

The energy payoff phase

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97

What is the ratio when 1 Acetyl CoA is broken down?

2:3:1:1

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98

What is 1 Acetyl CoA broken down into?

2 CO2 3 NADH 1 FADH 1 ATP

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99

How many pyruvate does 1 Glucose make?

2

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100

What are NADH and FADH?

Electron Carriers

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