Midterm 2

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Learning

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130 Terms

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Learning

Process of development through experiencing new information and behaviors

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How do we learn?

Through association, consequences, acquisition

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Behaviorism

Psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

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Ivan Pavlov

Demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning

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Classical conditioning

type of learning that in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events

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Neural stimulus

a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning (ie a bell)

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Unconditioned response

An unlearned naturally occurring response (ie salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (ie food in the mouth)

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Unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response

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What are the stages of classical conditioning?

Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination

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Acquisition

Initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response

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Extinction

Diminishing of a conditioned response. Occurs when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus.

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Spontaneous recovery

Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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Generalization

Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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How did Pavlov demonstrate generalization?

By attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog's body. After conditioning salivation to stimulation of the thigh, he stimulated other areas. The closer a stimulated spot was to the dogs thigh, the stronger the conditioned response.

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Discrimination

Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli

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What did Watson believe?

That human emotions and behaviors are mainly conditioned responses

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How did Watson go about proving his belief?

Applied classical conditioning principles in his studies of "Little Albert" to demonstrate how specific fears might be conditioned

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What did Skinner do?

Expanded on idea that behavior that leads to positive outcome is likely to be repeated. He designed & used the skinner box.

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Operant conditioning

Everyday behaviors are continually reinforced and shaped

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Reinforcement

Any event that strengthens a preceding response

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Shaping

Gradually guiding toward closer & closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Positive reinforcement

Presenting (adding) a stimulus

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Negative reinforcement

Removing (subtracting) a stimulus

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Positive reinforcer

Is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response (add things we like)

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Negative reinforcer

Is any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response (remove something unwanted)

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Types of reinforcers

Primary & Conditioned (secondary)

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Primary

Is unlearned; innately reinforcing stimuli (food)

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Conditioned (secondary)

Gains power through association with primary reinforcer (hitting a lever, money)

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Timing of reinforcers

Immediate & delayed

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Immediate

Occurs immediately after a behavior

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Delayed

Involves time delay between desired response of & delivery of reward

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Reinforcement schedules

Includes pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

  • Continuous reinforcement schedules

  • Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

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Continuous reinforcement schedule

Involves reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Includes schedule reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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Cognitive learning ???

Animal response on fixed interval vs variable interval reinforcement schedule. Destruction of intrinsic motivation by excessive rewards.

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Observational learning

Higher animals learn without direct experience by watching & imitating others

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Albert Bandura's Bobo doll study

  • Pioneer researcher of observational learning

  • Bobo doll experiment

    • Vicarious reinforcement & vicarious punishment

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Mirror neurons

Include frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

  • Brain's mirroring of another's action -> may enable imitation and empathy (monkey see monkey do)

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Vygotsky's sociocultural transmission

Transmission to the next generations of a cultures: values, beliefs, customs, skills.

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Inner speech

Cooperative dialogues between children and more expert members of society

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Memory

Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

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Evidence of memory

Recalling information. Recognizing it. Relearning it more easily on a later attempt.

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Ebbinghaus Retention Curve

The more time you practice something on day 1, the less time it will take to relearn on day 2.

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Atkinson Shiffrin Model

  • First, record "to be remembered" information as a fleeting SENSORY MEMORY

  • Then, process information into WORKING MEMORY where we encode it through rehearsal

  • Finally, information moves into LONG TERM MEMORY for later retrieval

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Explicit memory

Explicit memories (declarative memories) of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious , effortful processing

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Effortful processing and explicit memories

With experience and practice, explicit memories become more automatic

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Implicit memory

Implicit memories (non declarative memories) that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track

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Automatic processing and implicit memories

Implicit memories include automatic skills and classically conditioned associations. Information is automatically processed about: space, time, frequency.

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Sensory memory

First stage in forming explicit memories. Immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

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Iconic memory

picture image memory

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Echoic memory

sound memory

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Short term/ Working memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before. the info is stored or forgotten. Working memory: newer understanding of short term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of incoming auditory & visual spatial information, and of info retrieved from long term memory. Capacity varies by age & distractions at time of memory tasks.

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Processing strategies

Chunking, mnemonics, hierarchies

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Chunking

organization of items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Mnemonics

memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery & organizational devices

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Hierarchies

Organization of items into a few broad categories that are divided & subdivided into narrower concepts & facts

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Implicit memory system: Cerebellum & basal ganglia

Cerebellum -> forms and stores memories created by classical conditioning Basal ganglia -> Form memories for physical skills (muscle memory)

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Retaining info in the brain

Excitement or stress triggers hormone production & provokes amygdala to engage memory.

  • Emotions often persist with or without conscious awareness

  • Emotional arousal cause an increase in stress hormones, which lead to activity in the brain's memory forming areas

  • Foundation for emotional activation w PTSD

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Infantile Amnesia

Conscious memory of first 3 years is blank. Command of language & well-developed hippocampus needed. Memory encodes experience: how does experience change in first 3 years of life?

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Long term potentiation

Increase in a synapse's firing potential. After LTP, brain will not erase memories. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

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Forgetting: Encoding failure

Age: encoding lag is linked to age related memory decline Attention: failure to notice or encode contributes to memory failure

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Forgetting: Storage decay

Course of forgetting is initially rapid & then levels off w time. Physical changes in brain occur as memory forms.

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Interference

Proactive & Retroactive Proactive: occurs when older memory makes it difficult to remember new information Retroactive: occurs when new learning disrupts memory for older information

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Construction Errors

Misinformation & imagination effects: misinformation effect, imagination effect, source amnesia, deja vu

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Misinformation effect

Occurs when a memory has been corrupted by misleading information

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Imagination effect

Occurs when repeatedly imagining fake actions and events can create false memories

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Source amnesia

Involves faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned

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Deja Vu

Is sense that "I've experienced this before". Suggests cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

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Ceci & Bruck Study

Studied effect of suggestive interviewing techniques. 58% of Pre-K students produced false stories abt one or more unexperienced events

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Zygote

  • conception to 2 weeks

  • Life cycle begins at conception when 1 sperm cell unties w an egg to form a zygote (a fertilized egg)

  • Enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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Embryo

  • 3 to 9 weeks

  • Zygote's inner cells become embryo and outer cells become the placenta

  • It's a developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month

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Fetus

  • 9 weeks to birth

  • In next 6 weeks body organs begin to form and function. By 9 weeks the fetus is recognizably human

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Teratogen

  • Negatively impacts development

  • Agent (chemical/virus) that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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What are some examples of teratogens?

Zika virus, alcohol, influenza virus

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

Physical and mental abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. Signs include: small, out of proportion head, and abnormal facial features

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Newborn reflexes

automatic responses that support survival

  • eye blink

  • rooting

  • sucking

  • moro (embrace after shock)

  • palmar grasp

  • tonic neck

  • stepping

  • babinski

  • diving /swimming

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Habituation

becoming desensitized to something

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Newborn preferences

When shown 2 images with the same 3 elements, newborns spent more time looking at the face-like image. Newborns seem to have an inborn preference for looking toward faces.

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Motor skills development

  • Develop as nervous system and muscles mature

  • Primarily universal in sequence, but not in timing

  • Guided by genes and influenced by environment

  • Involve same sequence throughout the world

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Walking

  • In US 25% walk by 11 months, 50% by 12 months, 90% by 15 months

  • New walkers will fall many times

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Back to sleep position

associated with later crawling, but not later walking

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Early memory development

  • Children are active thinkers

  • Minds develop through series of stages from simple reflexes to adult abstract reasoning

  • Children's maturing brains build schemas used and adjusted through adaptation

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Adaptation

assimilation and accommodation

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Assimilation

(change to object) Use existing knowledge structures to understand new experiences

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Accommodation

(change to self) Reorganize knowledge to understand new experiences

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Sensorimotor stage

(birth to nearly 2 yrs)

  • Schemas for thinking and reasoning change with development (adaptation)

  • Object permanence

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Object permanence

Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (our ability to hold on to the idea that something still exists even if you close it off)

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Object permanence and A not B error

When you place a toy under a blanket and task the baby to find it under the cloth. After many times, baby gets objects permanence. Once you hide the toy under a different cloth the baby will look under the first cloth and not the second one where the toy actually is.

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Pre operational stage

(2 to 7 years)

  • Child learns to use language but cannot perform the mental operations of concrete logic

  • Conversation error

  • Egocentrism/ curse of knowledge

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Concrete operational stage

(7-11 years)

  • Children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events (things in front of them)

  • They begin to understand change in form before change in quantity

  • Become able to understand simple math and conservation

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Formal operational stage

(12 yrs to adulthood)

  • Children are no longer limited to concrete reasoning based on actual experience.

  • Able to think abstractly

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Theory of mind

  • Involves ability to read mental state of others

  • Between 3.5 and 4.5 children use theory of mind to realize others may hold false beliefs

  • By 4 to 5, children anticipate false beliefs of friends

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Vygotsky and the Social Child

Believed that children's minds grow through interaction w the physical & social environment

  • By age 7 children able to think & solve problems w words

  • Parent's & others provide a temporary scaffold to facilitate a child's higher level of thinking

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John Bowlby

  • Theorized reciprocal relationship with caregiver.

  • Hypothesized imprinting mechanism in humans.

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Mary Ainsworth

Developed test for Bowlby's theory of social imprinting

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Secure base

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Strange situation

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Secure/Insecure attachment styles

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Leo Kanner

Believed autism involved: resistance to change, is congenital in nature, and causes developmental issues

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DSM-5 Criteria

Autism spectrum disorder

  • Persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction

  • Nonverbal communication

  • Developing, maintaining, understanding relationships

  • Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior interests or activities

  • Repetitive motor movements

  • Highly restricted interests

  • Sensory issues

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