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1

Absolute Value

Always a positive number, distance of a number from 0.

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2

Acute Angle

measure is between 0° and 90°.

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3

Addend

numbers being added are called addends.

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4

Angle

Two rays sharing the same endpoint (called the angle vertex).

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5

Angle Bisector

The line dividing an angle into two equal angles.

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6

Array

A set of numbers or objects that follow a specific pattern.

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7

Attribute

A characteristic or feature of an object—such as size, shape, color, etc.—that allows it to be grouped.

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8

Average

same as mean.

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9

Base 10

Number system that assigns place value to numbers.

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10

Bell Curve

The bell shape created when a line is plotted using data points for an item that meets the criteria of normal distribution. The center of a bell curve contains the highest value points.

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11

Binomial

A polynomial equation with two terms usually joined by a plus or minus sign.

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12

Capacity

The volume of substance that a container will hold.

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13

Centimeter

A metric unit of measurement for length, abbreviated as cm. 2.5 cm is approximately equal to an inch.

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14

Circumference

The complete distance around a circle or a square.

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15

Chord

A segment joining two points on a circle.

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16

Common Factors

A factor shared by two or more numbers, common factors are numbers that divide exactly into two different numbers.

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17

Complementary Angles

Two angles that together equal 90°.

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18

Composite Number

A positive integer with at least one factor aside from its own. Composite numbers cannot be prime because they can be divided exactly.

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19

Conic Section

The section formed by the intersection of a plane and cone.

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20

Constant

A value that does not change.

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21

Congruent

Objects and figures that have the same size and shape. Congruent shapes can be turned into one another with a flip, rotation, or turn.

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22

Cosine

In a right triangle, cosine is a ratio that represents the length of a side adjacent to an acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse.

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23

Decagon

A polygon/shape with ten angles and ten straight lines.

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24

Diagonal

A line segment that connects two vertices in a polygon.

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25

Diameter

A line that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.

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26

Difference

The difference is the answer to a subtraction problem.

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27

Dividend

A number being divided into equal parts (inside the bracket in long division).

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28

Divisor

A number that divides another number into equal parts (outside of the bracket in long division).

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29

Edge

A line is where two faces meet in a three-dimensional structure.

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30

Ellipse

An ellipse looks like a slightly flattened circle and is also known as a plane curve. Planetary orbits take the form of ellipses.

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31

End Point

The "point" at which a line or curve ends.

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32

Equilateral

A term used to describe a shape whose sides are all of equal length.

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33

Event

This term often refers to an outcome of probability; it may answer questions about the probability of one scenario happening over another.

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34

Evaluate

This word means "to calculate the numerical value".

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35

Expressions

Symbols that represent numbers or operations between numbers.

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36

Face

The flat surfaces on a three-dimensional object.

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37

Factor

A number that divides into another number exactly.

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38

Factoring

The process of breaking numbers down into all of their factors.

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39

Factorial Notation

Often used in combinatorics, factorial notations requires that you multiply a number by every number smaller than it. The symbol used in factorial notation is ! When you see *x*!, the factorial of *x* is needed.

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40

Fibonacci Sequence

A sequence beginning with a 0 and 1 whereby each number is the sum of the two numbers preceding it. "0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34..." is a Fibonacci sequence.

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41

Figure

Two-Dimensional shapes.

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42

Frequency

The number of times an event can happen in a given period of time; often used in probability calculations.

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43

Furlong

A unit of measurement representing the side length of one square acre. One furlong is approximately 1/8 of a mile, 201.17 meters, or 220 yards.

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44

Greatest Common Factor

The largest number common to each set of factors that divides both numbers exactly. The greatest common factor of 10 and 20 is 10.

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45

Histogram

A graph that uses bars that equal ranges of values.

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46

Hyperbola

A type of conic section or symmetrical open curve. The hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane, the difference of whose distance from two fixed points in the plane is a positive constant.

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47

Hypotenuse

The longest side of a right-angled triangle, always opposite to the right angle itself.

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48

Identity

An equation that is true for variables of any value.

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49

Inequality

A mathematical equation expressing inequality and containing a greater than (>), less than (<), or not equal to (≠) symbol.

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50

Integers

All whole numbers, positive or negative, including zero.

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51

Irrational

A number that cannot be represented as a decimal or fraction. A number like pi is irrational because it contains an infinite number of digits that keep repeating. Many square roots are also irrational numbers.

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52

Isosceles

A polygon with two sides of equal length.

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53

Kilometer

A unit of measure equal to 1000 meters.

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54

Knot

A closed three-dimensional circle that is embedded and cannot be untangled.

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55

Like Terms

Terms with the same variable and same exponents/powers.

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56

Like Fractions

Fractions with the same denominator.

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57

Line

A straight infinite path joining an infinite number of points in both directions.

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58

Line Segment

A straight path that has two endpoints, a beginning and an end.

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59

Linear Equation

An equation that contains two variables and can be plotted on a graph as a straight line.

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60

Line of Symmetry

A line that divides a figure into two equal shapes.

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61

Logarithm

The power to which a base must be raised to produce a given number. If *nx* = *a*, the logarithm of *a*, with *n* as the base, is *x*. Logarithm is the opposite of exponentiation.

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62

Median

The median is the "middle value" in a series of numbers ordered from least to greatest.

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63

Mixed Numbers

Mixed numbers refer to whole numbers combined with fractions or decimals. Example 3 1/2 or 3.5.

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64

Mode

The mode in a list of numbers are the values that occur most frequently.

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65

Modular Arithmetic

A system of arithmetic for integers where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value of the modulus.

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66

Monomial

An algebraic expression made up of one term.

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67

Multiple

The multiple of a number is the product of that number and any other whole number. 2, 4, 6, and 8 are multiples of 2.

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68

Multiplicand

A quantity multiplied by another. A product is obtained by multiplying two or more multiplicands.

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69

Natural Numbers

Regular counting numbers.

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70

Net

A two-dimensional shape that can be turned into a two-dimensional object by gluing/taping and folding.

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71

Nth Root

The *n*th root of a number is how many times a number needs to be multiplied by itself to achieve the value specified. Example: the 4th root of 3 is 81 because 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 81.

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72

Norm

The mean or average; an established pattern or form.

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73

Normal Distribution

Also known as Gaussian distribution, normal distribution refers to a probability distribution that is reflected across the mean or center of a bell curve.

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74

Numerator

The top number in a fraction.

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75

Numeral

A written symbol denoting a number value.

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76

Obtuse Angle

An angle measuring between 90° and 180°.

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77

Obtuse Triangle

A triangle with at least one obtuse angle.

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78

Operation

Refers to addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division.

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79

Ordinal

Ordinal numbers give relative position in a set: first, second, third, etc.

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80

Parallelogram

A quadrilateral with two sets of opposite sides that are parallel.

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81

Parabola

An open curve whose points are equidistant from a fixed point called the focus and a fixed straight line called the directrix.

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82

Perpendicular

Two lines or line segments intersecting to form a right angle.

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83

Plane

a set of points join together to form a flat surface that extends in all directions.

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84

Polynomial

The sum of two or more monomials.

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85

Polygon

Line segments joined together to form a closed figure.

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86

Prime Numbers

integers greater than 1 that are only divisible by themselves and 1.

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87

Product

The sum obtained through multiplication of two or more numbers.

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88

Proper Fraction

A fraction whose denominator is greater than its numerator.

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89

Quadrant

One quarter (*qua)* of the plane on the Cartesian coordinate system. The plane is divided into 4 sections, each called a quadrant.

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90

Quadratic Equation

An equation that can be written with one side equal to 0. Quadratic equations ask you to find the quadratic polynomial that is equal to zero.

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91

Quartic

A polynomial having a degree of 4.

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92

Quintic

A polynomial having a degree of 5.

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93

Quotient

The solution to a division problem.

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94

Radius

A distance found by measuring a line segment extending from the center of a circle to any point on the circle; the line extending from the center of a sphere to any point on the outside edge of the sphere.

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95

Ray

A straight line with only one endpoint that extends infinitely.

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96

Range

The difference between the maximum and minimum in a set of data.

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97

Remainder

The number left over when a quantity cannot be divided evenly. A remainder can be expressed as an integer, fraction, or decimal.

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98

Right Angle

An angle equal to 90°.

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99

Right Triangle

A triangle with one right angle.

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100

Rhombus

A parallelogram with four sides of equal length and no right angles.

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