Med Term Urinary

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Kidneys combining form

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Biology

11th

255 Terms

1

Kidneys combining form

nephr/o, ren/o

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2

Kidney function

Filter the blood to remove waste products, maintain electrolyte concentrations, and remove excess water to maintain the fluid volume within the body.

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3

Renal Pelvis combining form

pyel/o

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4

Renal pelvis function

Collects urine produced by the kidneys.

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5

Urine combining form

ur/o, urin/o

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6

Urine function

Liquid waste products to be excreted.

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7

Ureters combining form

ureter/o

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8

Ureters function

Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

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9

Urinary Bladder combining form

cyst/o

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10

Urinary bladder function

Stores urine until it is excreted.

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11

Urethra combining form

urethr/o

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12

Urethra function

Transports urine from the bladder through the urethral meatus, where it is excreted.

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13

Prostate combining form

prostat/o

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14

Prostate function

A gland of the male reproductive system that surrounds the male urethra. Disorders of this gland can disrupt the flow of urine.

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15

-cele

hernia, tumor, swelling

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16

cyst/o

urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid

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17

Dia-

through, between, apart, complete

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18

glomerul/o

glomerulus

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19

hydr/o

water

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20

lith/o

stone, calculus

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21

-lysis

breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening

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22

nephr/o

kidney

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23

pyel/o

renal pelvis, bowl of kidney

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24

-tripsy

to crush

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25

ur/o

urine, urinary tract

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26

ureter/o

ureter

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27

urethr/o

urethra

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28

-uria

urination, urine

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29

vesic/o

urinary bladder

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30

urinary system performs many functions that are

important in maintaining homeostasis

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31

Urinary system functions

Maintaining the proper balance of water, electrolytes, and acids in the body by filtering the blood as it flows through the kidneys; Constantly filtering the blood to remove urea, creatinine, uric acid, and other waste materials from the bloodstream; Converting these waste products and excess fluids into urine in the kidneys and excreting them from the body via the urinary bladder

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32

Creatinine

waste product of muscle metabolism

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33

urinary system or urinary tract consists of

two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra

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34

genitourinary tract

because the urinary tract is located in close proximity to the reproductive organs

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35

kidneys constantly

filter the blood to remove waste products and excess water. These are excreted as urine, which is 95% water and 5% urea and other body wastes

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36

How much blood does the kidney filter per day

Roughly 150-200 quarts

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37

How much urine is produced per day

1-2 quarts

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38

kidneys other functions

maintain the proper level of fluid, produce hormones that control blood pressure and make red blood cells, and activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones

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39

renal (REE-nal) means

pertaining to the kidneys (ren means kidney or kidneys, and -al means pertaining to)

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40

Where are kidneys located

retroperitoneal space, with one on each side of the vertebral column below the diaphragm and the lower edge of the rib cage

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41

Retroperitoneal means

behind the peritoneum, which is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

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42

renal cortex (REE-nal KOR-tecks)

the outer region of the kidney. This layer of tissue contains more than one million microscopic units called nephrons.

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43

cortex means

the outer portion of an organ

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44

medulla (meh-DULL-ah)

the inner region of the kidney, and it contains most of the urine-collecting tubules.

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45

tubule

a small tube

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46

nephrons (NEF-ronz)

the microscopic functional units of each kidney; it is here that urine is produced through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

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47

Reabsorption

the return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration

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48

Each nephron contains

a glomerulus (gloh-MER-you-lus), which is a cluster of capillaries (plural, glomeruli), surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule, and a renal tubule

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49

First step in the process of urine production

Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery and flows into the nephrons

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50

Second step in the process of urine production

After passing through the filtration system of the glomerulus, the filtered blood containing protein and blood cells leaves the kidney and returns to the bloodstream through the renal vein

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52

Third step in the process of urine production

The remaining filtrate flows into the renal tubules, where elements, including some water, sugar, and electrolytes, are returned to the bloodstream via a nearby capillary

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53

Fourth step in the process of urine production

Remaining waste products are continuously converted into urine, which is transported to the renal pelvis and collected in preparation for entry into the ureters

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54

renal pelvis

the funnel-shaped area inside each kidney that is surrounded by the renal cortex and medulla; where the newly formed urine from the nephrons collects before it flows into the ureters

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55

ureters (you-REE-ters)

two narrow tubes, each about 10 to 12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

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56

How does urine move from the ureters to the bladder

Peristalsis, which is a series of wave-like contractions

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57

How does urine get into the bladder

drains from the ureters into the bladder through the ureteral orifices in the wall of the urinary bladder

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58

Orifice means

opening

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59

urinary bladder

an oval, hollow, muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

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60

Where is the urinary bladder located

in the anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis

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61

The average adult bladder stores how much urine

more than one pint

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62

What is the bladder lined with

rugae, which allow it to expand when full and contract when empty

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63

urethra (you-REE-thrah)

the tube extending from the bladder to the exterior of the body

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64

Urinary sphincters

two, one on either end of the urethra; muscular rings control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus

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65

sphincter

ring-like muscle that closes a passageway

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66

urethral meatus (you-REE-thrahl mee-AY-tus) or urinary meatus

the external opening of the urethra

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67

meatus means

external opening of a canal

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68

female urethra

approximately 1.5 inches long, and the urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; transports only urine

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69

male urethra

approximately 8 inches long, and the urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen

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70

prostate gland (PROS-tayt)

part of the male reproductive system, surrounds the urethra; Most disorders of the prostate affect the male's ability to urinate

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71

Urination

voiding or micturition; normal process of excreting urine

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72

What causes the urge to urinate/micturate

As the bladder fills up with urine, pressure is placed on the base of the urethra

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73

What is required for urination

the coordinated contraction of the bladder muscles and relaxation of the sphincters, which forces the urine through the urethra and out through the urethral meatus

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74

nephrologist (neh-FROL-oh-jist)

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys (nephr means kidney, and -ologist means specialist)

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75

urologist (you-ROL-oh-jist)

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males (ur means urine, and -ologist means specialist)

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76

nephropathy (neh-FROP-ah-thee)

any disease of the kidney (nephr/o means kidney, and -pathy means disease); includes both degenerative and inflammatory conditions

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77

Diabetic nephropathy

kidney disease resulting from poorly controlled diabetes mellitus

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78

Renal failure or kidney failure

the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions; body cannot replace damaged nephrons, and when too many nephrons have been destroyed, the result is kidney failure

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79

Azotemia (ay-zoh-TEE-mee-ah)

elevation of the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by a lack of blood flow to each kidney; Uremia can occur when this excess becomes toxic

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80

Uremia (you-REE-mee-ah)

uremic poisoning; toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea and other waste products normally secreted in the urine are retained in the blood (ur means urine, and -emia means blood condition)

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81

Acute renal failure (ARF)

sudden onset and is characterized by uremia; can be fatal if not reversed promptly.

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How can ARF be caused

by the kidneys not receiving enough blood to filter due to dehydration or a sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure from injury, burns, or a severe infection

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83

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

the progressive loss of renal function over months or years; may result from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or a family history of kidney disease

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84

CKD and vascular system

buildup of waste in the blood from chronic kidney disease can be a contributing factor in heart attacks and strokes

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85

End-stage renal disease (ESRD)

kidney failure; the final stage of chronic kidney disease, and this condition is fatal unless the functions of the failed kidneys are replaced by dialysis, or with a successful kidney transplant

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86

Nephrotic syndrome (neh-FROT-ick)

nephrosis; group of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost through the urine; usually caused by damage to the glomeruli; results in abnormally low levels of protein in the blood (nephr/o means kidney, and -tic means pertaining to)

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87

Edema (eh-DEE-mah)

excessive fluid accumulation in body tissues that can be symptomatic of nephrotic syndrome and other kidney diseases; can be in the area around the eyes, or in the legs and feet

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88

Hyperproteinuria (high-per-proh-tee-in-YOU-ree-ah)

the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine (hyper- means excessive, protein means protein, and -uria means urine)

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89

Hypoproteinemia (high-poh-proh-tee-in-EE-mee-ah)

the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood (hypo- means deficient or decreased, protein means protein, and -emia means blood condition); often associated with hyperproteinuria

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90

Causes of nephrotic syndrome

diabetes mellitus, infection, and kidney disorders

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91

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children

Minimal change disease, so called because the nephrons look normal under a regular microscope

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92

ectopic kidney

congenital condition in which one kidney is located in an abnormal position or has fused with the other kidney (ec- means out, top means place, and -ic means pertaining to)

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Ectopic means

located in an abnormal place or position

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What is ectopic kidney associated with

increased risk of urinary tract infections and nephroliths

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95

Hydronephrosis (high-droh-neh-FROH-sis)

the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys (hydr/o means water, nephr means kidney, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)

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96

Cause of hydronephrosis

problems associated with the backing up of urine due to an obstruction such as a nephrolith (kidney stone) or a stricture (narrowing) in the ureter

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97

Nephritis (neh-FRY-tis)

inflammation of the kidney or kidneys (nephr means kidney, and -itis means inflammation)

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98

Common cause of nephritis

toxins, infection, or an autoimmune disease

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99

Glomerulonephritis (gloh-mer-you-loh-neh-FRY-tis)

type of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine (glomerul/o means glomeruli, nephr means kidney, and -itis means inflammation)

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100

Pyonephrosis (pye-oh-nef-ROH-sis) or nephropyosis

the suppuration of the kidney (py/o means pus, nephr means kidney, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease); often associated with hydronephrosis

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