Final Vocab

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judicial review

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Government

205 Terms

1

judicial review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

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2

unconstitutional

not consistent with a nation's constitution

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3

criminal trial court

hears cases about crimes like burglary, murder, or driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs

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4

plaintiff

in a civil trial, the person who brings suit in court

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5

prosecutor

an attorney who represents the government in a criminal case

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6

jury

a group of citizens who hear evidence during a trial and give a verdict

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7

grand jury

a group that hears charges against a suspect and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trial

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8

contentious

likely to cause disagreement or argument

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9

ideological

a set of basic beliefs about life, culture, government, and society

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10

judicial activism

the philosophy that courts must sometimes step into political and social controversies in order to protect Constitutional rights

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11

originalism

a judicial philosophy that interprets the Constitution by exploring understanding of the text that people had when they adopted the Constitution

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12

error of law

a mistake by a judge as to the applicable law in a case

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13

concurrent opinion

document issued by judges who agree with majority opinion but not the the same reasoning

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14

arbitrary

existing or coming about seemingly at random or by chance

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15

amend

to change, alter

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16

judicial restraint

the philosophy that courts should generally avoid overturning laws passed or actions taken by democratically elected bodies

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17

brief

a written statement setting forth the legal arguments, relevant facts, and precedents supporting one side of a case

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18

amicus curiae

Latin for "friend of the court"; a written brief from an individual or group claiming to have information useful to a court's consideration of a case

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19

rule of four

an unwritten rule declaring that if four of the nine justices agree to hear a case, it will be scheduled for argument

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20

law clerk

an attorney who assists a justice in reviewing cases

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21

writ of certiorari

an order from the Supreme Court to a lower court to send up the records on a case for review

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22

primary

an event held before an election where members o the party go to the polls and vote on which candidate they want to see earn their party's nomination

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23

uniform

consistent in conduct or opinion

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24

expertise

special skill or knowledge in a particular field

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25

expressed powers

powers directly stated in the Constitution

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26

elastic clause

clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to "make all laws necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I.

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27

preamble

introduction to the constitution

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28

articles

one of seven main divisions of the body of the Constitution

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29

amendments

changes to the Constitution

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30

legislative branch

the branch of government that makes the laws

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31

reserved powers

powers that belong strictly to the states

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32

powers of the executive branch

  1. negotiate treaties 2. nominate people for federal office 3. enforce laws 4. conduct wars 5. pardon people

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33

powers of the judicial branch

Interprets the constitution and other laws; reviews lower courts decisions or make sure the are being constitutional

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34

branch

part of government

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35

constitution of the united states

sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States.

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36

popular sovereignty

rule by the people

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37

delegated powers

powers the Constitution grants or delegates to the national government

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38

limited government

the concept that a government's power was not absolute

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39

federalism

a system of government in which two or more governments exercise power over the same

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40

separation of powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

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41

checks of congress on the president

override a veto, impeach the president, confirm nominations

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42

incorporation doctrine

the process by which the Bill of Rights was extended to the states and localities

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43

probable cause

a reasonable basis to believe a person or premises is linked to a crime

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44

eminent domain

the power of government to take private property for public use

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45

violation

an act of disregard or disrespect

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46

cabinet

the president's closest advisers, consisting of the vice president, the secretaries of each of the 15 executive departments, and other top government officials that help the president make decisions and policy

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47

leak

the release of secret information to the media by anonymous government officials

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48

federal

pertaining to the union of states under a central government distinct from the individual governments of the separate states

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49

white house chief of staff

the president's most trusted adviser and the overseer of the work and operations of the White House and the Executive Office of the President (EOP)

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50

ambassador

an official of the government who represents the nation in diplomatic matters

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51

government corporation

a business that the federal government runs

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52

innovative

characterized by a new idea or method

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53

spoils system

victorious politicians rewarding their supporters with government jobs

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54

civil service system

government employment based on competitive examinations and merit

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55

whistleblower

a federal employee who reports corruption or wrongdoing by the government

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56

recuse

to remove oneself from participation to avoid a conflict of interest

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57

implement

to put into effect and ensure fulfillment by concrete measures

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58

bureaucrat

one who works for a department or agency of the federal government; a civil servant

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59

stakeholder

a private citizen or others who will be affected by potential rules and regulations

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60

injunction

an order that will stop an action or enforce a rule or regulation

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61

client group

individuals and groups who work with a government agency and are most affected by its decisions

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62

iron triangle

a relationship formed among government agencies, congressional committees, and client groups that work together

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63

deregulate

to remove regulation

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64

red tape

overly burdensome regulations and requirements

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65

public policy

a plan of action adopted by government decision makers to solve a problem or reach a goal

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66

landslide

a great majority of votes for one side

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67

survey

a poll; a collection of data

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68

generate

to produce; to be the cause of

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69

political patronage

appointment to political office, usually as a reward for helping get a president elected

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70

federal reserve system

the central banking system of the United States

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71

ensure

to make sure, certain, or safe

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72

executive agreement

legally-binding pact between the president and the head of a foreign government that does not require Senate approval

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73

treaty

a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries

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74

deny

to refuse to admit or acknowledge

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75

national security

protection of a nation—its lands and people—from foreign threats, whether from governments, organized groups, or individual terrorists

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76

reauthorize

the act of passing legislation into law again

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77

military tribunal

a military court designed to try members of enemy forces during wartime, operating outside the scope of conventional criminal and civil proceedings

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78

civilian

one not on active duty in the armed services or not on a police or firefighting force

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79

amnesty

a presidential order that pardons a group of people who have committed an offense against the government

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80

reprieve

a presidential order that postpones legal punishment

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81

pardon

a presidential order that releases a person from legal punishment

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82

impound

to refuse to spend

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83

executive order

a rule issued by the president that has the force of law

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84

impeach

to accuse a public official of misconduct in office

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85

executive privilege

the right of the president and other high-ranking executive officers to refuse to testify before Congress or a court

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86

mandate

a formal order given by a higher authority; an authorization to act given to a representative

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87

contemporary

happening, existing, living, or coming into being during the same period of time

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88

inherent powers

powers not described in the Constitution, but that have been claimed by presidents

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89

hearing

a session at which a committee listens to testimony from people interested in the bill

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90

joint resolution

a resolution passed in the same form by both houses

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91

simple resolution

a statement adopted to cover matters affecting only one house of Congress

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92

rider

a provision included in a bill on a subject other than the one covered in the bill

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93

veto

rejection of a bill by the president

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94

tax

the money that people and businesses pay to support the activities of the government

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95

appropriation

approval of government spending

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96

consequence

something produced by a cause or action

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97

continuing resolution

a resolution that keeps the government open and operating under previous levels of appropriation during times when the House and Senate are controlled by different parties and cannot agree on an appropriation bill

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98

authorization bill

a bill that sets up a federal program and specifies how much money may be appropriated for the program

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99

earmark

part of a funding bill that will go toward a certain purpose

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100

entitlement

a required government expenditure that continues from one year to the next

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