Psych test 3

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182 Terms

1

Encoding

taking in external stimuli and creating internal memory

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Engram

a mythical place where a specific memory is stored in the brain

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Storage

we store/hold our internal memories

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Retrieval

retrieving memory from storage and bringing it to consciousness

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5

structural processing

focusing on the visual components of what you are trying to remember, weak for creating strong memory

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Phonemic processing

focusing on the sound of the word you are processing, weak for creating strong memory

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7

Semantic processing

focusing on the meaning of what you are trying to remember, deeper level of processing

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8

organizational processing

The process of grouping items in memory into larger units based on specific relationships among the items

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9

Craik and Tulving

found that semantically processed words were remembered more than the others

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10

Encoding specificity principle

the best way to encode and recall a memory is to use the same sense organs, memories are linked to the context in which they are created

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11

Elaboration

rather than putting information to your memory, you add details to your encoding and build on it

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12

dual code theory

better to encode information using multiple sense modalities

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13

self-referent encoding

if you can connect/relate information to yourself you will encode it better and remember it more

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14

cocktail party phenomenon

we care so much about ourselves that we are always looking to hear our name, in complex environments, if we hear our name being said across a room we will pick up on it because we care so much about ourselves

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15

motivation to remember

putting in extra effort to attend to and organize the information to facilitate future recall

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16

Pegwords

picturing things with objects, creating mental associations between two concrete objects

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17

method of loci

A mnemonic device that involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations, associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations

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18

chuncking

The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember or organizing items into familiar & manageable units

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19

spacing/testing effect

if you space out your encoding you are more likely to remember it

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20

Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory

assumes three different memory systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

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21

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information

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22

Sperling, 1960

Measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory

An array of letters flashed quickly on a screen, participants were asked to report as many as possible sensory memory has a large capacity but short duration

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23

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten, 30 secs to 1 min

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24

Miller 7 +- 2 rule

the average person can remember 5 or 9 pieces of information

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25

long-term memory

the relatively permanent storage of information, can store a vast/limitless amount of information for as as long as a lifetime

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26

Procedural memory

memory on how to do things or muscle memory, is effortless

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27

declarative memory

It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts/events/words

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28

semantic memory

factual information and general knowledge of the world

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29

episodic memory

memory for one's personal past experiences or events

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30

autobiographical memory

memories about yourself (semantic and episodic)

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31

HSAM (highly superior autobiographical memory)

the term used to describe people who remember every moment of their life

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32

prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future or something for the future, we are not very good at it, difficult since we are on the lookout for ques, the more complicated and farther in the future the harder it is

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33

restrospective memory

remembering information from the past

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34

maintenance rehearsal

keeping informatinon in short term memory

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35

Alan Baddeley

proposed the concept of a working memory

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36

maintenance rehearsal (working memory)

A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself, can fade quickly

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37

Elabroative rehearsal (working memory)

forming deeper connections to increase storage potential of memory

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38

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

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39

visuospatial sketchpad

A component of working memory where we create mental images to remember visual information, responds to both visual and spacial information

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40

phonological loop

the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal/language and auditory information

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41

central executive of working memory

controls attention and other mental resources, decides what info to retrieve

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42

episodic buffer

keeps information in sequence in order to keep the memory successful, important for collaboration of visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop, storage component of working memory that combines the images and sounds from the other two components into coherent, story-like episodes

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43

Benefits of working memory

positively correlated to having good overall memory, a higher likelihood of succeeding in school, and decision making

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44

consolidation of memory

turning short term memory into stable long term memory

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45

Hippocampus and memory consolidation

critical for consolidation, when hippocampus is not working properly new memories are unable to be created; the neutral storage of a long-term memory comes from the hippocampus

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46

REM and consolidation

when in a deep level of sleep and give your brain time for REM you will have more stable long term memory

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47

reconsolidation

the process of returning information to long-term memory, when memories are retrieved, they can be potentially altered before being stored again

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48

implicit versus explicit memory retrieval

implicit is unconscious effortless retrieval (procedural memory) basal ganglia
explicit conscious, effortful retrieval of memory, hippocampus/prefrontal cortex

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49

state-dependent retrieval

the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same emotional state during encoding and retrieval, your emotional state is acting as an additional memory queue

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50

associative network

a memory network that organizes individual units of information according to some set of relationships, mental pathways linking knowledge within memory

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51

schemas

shortcuts that our brain uses to process information, a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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52

Recall (testing memory)

retrieval of memory with little or no queues

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53

recognition (testing memory)

given a lot of codes or queues to guide retrieval (ex multiple choice exam), easier task but opening yourself to chance

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54

relearning (testing memory)

how long does it take you to relearn a task/information you learned previously, more used with animal testing

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55

Amnesia

partial or total loss of memory

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56

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past or old information, a rare phenomenon

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57

anterograde amnesia

the inability to create new memory, more common

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58

serial position effect

we are more likely to remember/recall information based on when it was presented to us

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59

primacy and recency effect

the tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first or last in a sequence
primacy - are able to devote more resources to the information so we are creating stronger/better memory, more stable
recency - works because the information is still in our short-term memory, but if you go over the duration of short-term memory, it will go away, will happen if you immediately test memory

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60

Simmons and Chabris

showed that 1/3 of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game

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61

selective attention

the processes that allow an individual to select and focus on particular input for further processing while simultaneously suppressing irrelevant or distracting information, remember the information we attend to and forget other info

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62

Jennifer Thompson and Ronald Cotton

false eyewitness identification due to own race bias, reconsolidation, and false memory

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63

own race bias

the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race

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64

source monitoring

the ability to remember where you heard information, or the process of making inferences about the origins of memories

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65

cryptoamnesia

unconscious/accidental plagiarism of the work of others, associated with errors in source monitoring

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66

processing errors of memory

error in encoding and the storage of information

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67

tip of the tongue phenomenon

the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach

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68

ineffective encoding

memories never encoded or stored due to lack of attention

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69

Decay/transience

the pattern of forgetting things over time to make our memories more efficant

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70

retrieval failure

the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues, not remembering something one is certain of knowing

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71

Interference of Memory

information can be lost or less accurate due to an overlap of similar information

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72

proactive interference

old information interferes with new information

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73

retroactive interference

new information interferes with old information

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74

suggestibility

how open you are to changing you memory, effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories

- reconsolidation process

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75

Bias of memory

memories distorted or remembered by our current belief system, more likely to forget information the go against our beliefs

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76

persistence

the continual recurrence of unwanted memories, can lead to

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77

Learning Styles

The different ways people naturally think and learn, not supported by research

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78

synaptic pruning

The mechanisms behind synaptic pruning help promote efficiency by removing excess or unnecessary connections, not wasting synaptic materical

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79

associative learning

learn based on associations

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80

classical conditioning

more reflexive or automatic behaviors

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81

operant conditioning

conscious effortful behaviors

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82

Pavlov's Dogs

Pavlov discovered classical conditioning with his dogs and feeding them, Pavlov is not a psychologist but a biologist. ]

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83

neutral stimulus

a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response or the desired response

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84

unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that causes a natural reflexive response

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85

conditioned stimulus

a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place, neutral stimulus becomes through repeated pairing

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86

unconditioned response

natural reflexive response the unconditioned stimulus elicits

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87

conditioned response

the learned response/action that the conditioned stimulus elicits

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88

acquisition

the time period learning is occurring, where the neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus

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89

extinction

once the organism stops responding to the conditioned stimulus

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90

spontaneous recovery

the random reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred, no acquisition

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91

generalization

the tendency once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses, responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli

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92

Discrimination

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

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93

Little Albert Study

Shows that fears can be conditioned and unconditioned
unconditioned stimulus - loud sound
conditioned stimulus - white rat
unconditioned response - fear
conditioned response - fear
generalization - fear of other fuzzy things

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94

taste aversion

a learned avoidance of a particular food, A classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when you become ill after eating the food.

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95

higher-order conditioning

occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus

a conditioned stimulus can begin to act as an unconditioned for a new round of learning

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96

latent inhibition

previous learning interfering with new learning, causes slower learning of new conditioning

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97

renewal effect

sudden reemergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an organism is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired

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98

Thorndike's Law of Effect

behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely to repeat , and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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99

Reinforment

increasing a behavior for a desired outcome

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100

punishment

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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