nutrition final heh

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

type 1 diabetes

1 / 114

Tags and Description

115 Terms

1

type 1 diabetes

results from destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin

New cards
2

type 2 diabetes

progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin; associated with obesity

New cards
3

insulin

A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells and tissues

New cards
4

77-99 mg/dL

normal fasting blood glucose

New cards
5

100-125 mg/dL

fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes

New cards
6

>126 mg/dL

Lab diagnosis of diabetes based on fasting glucose

New cards
7

hyperglycemia

high blood sugar

New cards
8

hypoglycemia

low blood sugar

New cards
9

glucagon

A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels

New cards
10

carcinogen

A cancer-causing substance

New cards
11

grilled meat

a food considered to be carcinogenic

New cards
12

thermogenesis

production of heat, especially through the processes of metabolism

New cards
13

female athlete triad

disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis

New cards
14

AMDR for carbs

45-65% of total calories

New cards
15

AMDR for fats/lipids

20-35% of total calories

New cards
16

AMDR for protein

10-35% of total calories

New cards
17

simple carbs

monosaccharides and disaccharides

New cards
18

complex carbs

polysaccharides (starches and fibers)

New cards
19

leptin

hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used

New cards
20

folate

B vitamin important in preventing neural tube defects in a fetus

New cards
21

thiamin

Vitamin B1, a coenzyme in metabolism

New cards
22

biotin

Vitamin B7, an important metabolic coenzyme

New cards
23

Pyridoxine

Vitamin B6, an important coenzyme in metabolism

New cards
24

Cobalamin

Vitamin B12, activates folate and is needed for cell division

New cards
25

ascorbic acid

Vitamin C, and antioxidant and coenzyme for collagen synthesis

New cards
26

atherosclerosis

condition in which fatty deposits called plaque buildup on the inner walls of the arteries

New cards
27

plaques

mounds of fat, mixed with minerals, that build up along artery walls in atherosclerosis.

New cards
28

LDL cholesterol

"bad" cholesterol delivers plaque to the arterial walls. ideally < 100 mg/dl

New cards
29

HDL cholesterol

"good" cholesterol; increases with exercise, ideally >60mg/dL

New cards
30

hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

New cards
31

A1C

blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin to assess blood sugar control over time

New cards
32

outbreak

A sudden rise in the incidence of a disease, usually more than 2 foodborne illness cases

New cards
33

epidemic

A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.

New cards
34

food intoxication

an illness resulting from ingestion of food containing a toxin

New cards
35

food poisoning

an illness usually caused by eating food that contains harmful bacteria or other pathogens

New cards
36

biotechnology

A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products

New cards
37

genetic engineering

Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

New cards
38

golden rice

Genetically modified rice that produces edible beta-carotene, which the body can turn into vitamin A

New cards
39

fatigue

the first sign of dehydration

New cards
40

heat stroke

a dangerous condition in which the body loses its ability to cool itself through perspiration

New cards
41

sports anemia

a transient condition of low hemoglobin in the blood, associated with the early stages of sports training or other strenuous activity

New cards
42

pernicious anemia

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the bloodstream

New cards
43

iron-deficiency anemia

anemia caused by inadequate iron intake

New cards
44

amennorhea

absence of menstruation

New cards
45

niacin flush

painful tingling effect caused by too much nicotinic acid

New cards
46

pharmacological effect

the body's response to a large dose of a nutrient that acts like a drug at high levels

New cards
47

physiological

having to do with an organism's physical processes

New cards
48

cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to your tissues during long periods of moderate to vigorous activity

New cards
49

thermic effect of food

energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients

New cards
50

moderate intensity exercise

exercise that raises HR and RR but allows talking and is about 5/10 exertion

New cards
51

vigorous intensity exercise

Intense exercise that raises HR and RR and requires 7-8/10 exertion and disallows conversation

New cards
52

retinol-binding protein

a protein that is necessary to transport vitamin A from the liver to other tissues

New cards
53

vitamin A

Retinol, important for maintenance of the retina

New cards
54

DASH diet

to treat HTN; increase fruit, vegetables, and low fat dairy; k, mg, ca

New cards
55

riboflavin

B2, a coenzyme in metabolism

New cards
56

pellagra

the niacin-deficiency disease, characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and eventually death

New cards
57

beriberi

the thiamin-deficiency disease; characterized by loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action

New cards
58

ariboflavinosis

riboflavin deficiency that causes sore throat and swollen mucous membranes, cheliosis

New cards
59

diuretic

agent that increases urine output

New cards
60

Hyponatremia

deficient sodium in the blood

New cards
61

hypernatremia

high sodium levels in the blood

New cards
62

metabolic syndrome

A syndrome marked by the presence of usually three or more of a group of factors (as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and high fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.

New cards
63

sports beverage

a good choice when exercising for a long time or after skipping a meal; should have 6-7% carbs

New cards
64

yo-yo dieting

a series of diets followed by eventual weight gain

New cards
65

fad diet

a diet that requires a major change in eating habits and promises quick weight loss

New cards
66

metabolism

the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials

New cards
67

potable water

water that is safe to drink

New cards
68

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

New cards
69

physiological fuel value

the number of kcalories that the body derives from a food

New cards
70

calorimetry

The measurement of heat changes; used to determine kcal content fo foods

New cards
71

Vitamin D

Enables the body to properly absorb and use calcium; the sunshine vitamins

New cards
72

rickets

osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity

New cards
73

osteomalacia

disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency

New cards
74

brown fat

Source of heat unique to neonates that is capable of greater thermogenic activity than ordinary fat

New cards
75

adipose tissue

Tissue that stores fat.

New cards
76

visceral fat

fat located around major organs; also called intra-abdominal fat

New cards
77

vitamin precursors

transform into active vitamin forms inside the body

New cards
78

coenzymes

vitamins that assist in the normal functioning of enzymes

New cards
79

cofactors

nonprotein enzyme helpers

New cards
80

vitamins

Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.

New cards
81

cholecalciferol

another name for Vitamin D3

New cards
82

sedentary

characterized by or calling for continued sitting; remaining in one place

New cards
83

B-vitamins

these water soluble vitamins interact with other water-soluble vitamins and act as coenzymes (catalysts) by facilitating enzymatic reactions

New cards
84

antioxidants

Organic molecules that help protect the body from harmful chemicals called free radicals

New cards
85

angina

chest pain

New cards
86

pallor

paleness

New cards
87

jaundice

yellowing of the skin

New cards
88

leptin resistance

a condition in which higher-than-normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the expected physiological response

New cards
89

physically fit

ready to handle whatever comes your way from day to day

New cards
90

stroke

Damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply, aka CVA

New cards
91

myocardial infarction

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup (heart attack)

New cards
92

liposuction

removal of fat beneath the skin by means of suction

New cards
93

gastric sleeve surgery

a surgical procedure to treat obesity that involves removing a large part of the stomach so the remainder resembles a tube or sleeve in order to limit the volume that the stomach can hold

New cards
94

gastric band

synthetic material that makes stomach smaller, the synthetic material is filled with saline and can be adjusted

New cards
95

gastric bypass

reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to the jejunum

New cards
96

antigen

A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody

New cards
97

antibody

A protein that acts against a specific antigen

New cards
98

macrophages

cells that phagocytize foreign substances and help activate T cells

New cards
99

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature

New cards
100

scurvy

Vitamin C deficiency; results in a lack of collagen and loosening of joints and teeth, poor wound healing

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 144 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11009 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(52)
note Note
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 133 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard306 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)