STS 51 Final

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When about was the Hellenistic period

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1

When about was the Hellenistic period

320 BCE

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2

What were the 3 types of “schools” during the hellenistic period?

rationalists, methodists, and empiricists

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3

Who was a prominent empiricists

Celsus

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4

who are prominent rationalists

hippocratics, herophilos, and erasistratos

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5

How do the rationalists treat medicine

to treat the disease we need to know what causes

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6

How do the empiricists treat medicine

as long as you know how to treat a disease, you do not need to know what causes it

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7

what is the tripod the empiricists rely on

accute observation, library, and understanding the limitation of similarity

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8

when does the roman republic gain supremacy in the mediterranean

2nd c. BCE

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9

who becomes emperor and ushers in the roman empire

Augustus Caesar

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10

who was the first greek doctor to practice in rome

Archagathus

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11

how did romans feel about greek medicine in the roman empire

did not like it, too invasive

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12

what is the main way the roman empire left their mark on healing practices

bath houses

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13

when does greek medicine become a normal part of roman culture

2nd c CE

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14

how does asclepiades view the body

pores and corpuscles (diffusion)

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15

how does erasistratus view the body

filling towards what is being emptied (vacuum pressure)

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16

for asclepiades, what causes disease

inappropriate blockages or flows

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17

what is medicine for the hippocratics

food

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18

what is one of the common purges used in hippocratic medicine

hellebore

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19

does hippocratic writing include why a specific drug is used

no

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20

in hippocratic pharmacy, what is the most common number of ingredients in a medical recipe

4 to 5

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21

what is dirt pharmacy

using urine or manure in gynecological medicine

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22

around what time in Theophrastus around

300 BCE

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23

what is theophrastus’s writings famous for

plant catalogues

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24

for theophrastus, what is the power of the plant

flavor

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25

where are the flavors/power of a plant best located for theophrastus

roots

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26

what is scribonius largus known for

writing drug recipes

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27

when was scribonius largus around

1st c CE

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28

what is polypharmacy

the use of large numbers of ingredients

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29

how many ingredients does scribonius largus recipes normally have

at least 7

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30

what is dioscorides famous for writting

de materia medica

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31

what is de materia medica about

plants or substances used in medicine, tells were they grow and how to collect and prepare

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32

what is one of the most famous ancient drugs

silphium, fennel like plant

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33

What is methodism

school of medicine based on asclepiades ideas

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34

what was galen inspired by in rome regarding anatomical displays

spectacle

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35

what writing talks about regimen based diet

Hippocrates, ancient medicine

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36

which mediterranean city did the emperor constantine move the capital

constantinople

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37

who wrote about all the diffferent kinds of medicine, like a guide

celsus, on medicine

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38

which emperor did galen serve during his prime

commodus

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39

which leader was assasinated on the ides of march

julius caeser

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40

which philosopher says each animal body is designed to live a particular mode of life

aristotle

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41

what period of mediteranian history was initiated by death of alexander the great

hellenistic period

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42

why did silphium go extinct

overharvesting and climate change

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43

who founded methodism (2)

themison and thessalus

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44

what did methodists say about medicine

cant know the hidden causes or why they are sick but it is all causes by 3 manifest commonalities

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45

what are the 3 methodist manifest commonalities

constriction, mixed, and laxity

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46

what type of timed treatment did the methodists use

diatritus, every third day

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47

why was methodism so popular in the roman empire

not much time required with a patient, no language barriers, no cultural barriers

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48

Rationalists: science? can we know? treatments?

it is a science, we can know caues, treatments based on causes

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49

Empiricists: science? can we know? treatments?

it is not a science, we can not know causes, only compare with past experiences

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50

Asclepiades: science? can we know? treatments?

it is a science, know pores and corpuscles, treatments for blockages and flows

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51

Methodists: science? can we know? treatments?

is a science, can not know cause, treatments are manifest and logical

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52

when was soranus around

1st century CE

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53

what kind of doctor is soranus

methodist

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54

what is soranus’s most famous work

gynecology

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55

what is ableism

discrimination against those with disabilities and in favor of able bodied people

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56

who practiced midwifery in rome

older women in the family, slaves, professional women, and sometimes doctors if needed

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57

who was gynecology written for

husbands and doctors

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58

what are the julian marriage laws

laws to encourage having many sons

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59

who enacted the julian marriage laws and when

augustus (in 1st c CE)

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60

what is the main difference between hippocrate’s disease of women and soranus’s gynecology

more acceptance for variation and a woman’s experience in gynecology

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61

where is galen from

pergamum

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62

what century is galen from

2nd c CE

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63

what is the text, my own books by galen about

all his books and what past drs said and why they are wrong.

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64

who did galen say was the most right about the body and medicine

hippocrates

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65

what is galen’s model of the body

the 4 humors

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66

why did galen write my own books

counterfeit copies and a fire destroyed lots of his works

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67

what did galen take advantage of in roman culture

spectacle

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68

what does galen’s anatomical procedures talk about

basic procedures for how to conduct dissections

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69

what is galen’s on mixtures about

the 4 qualities, black and yellow bile, blood, and phlegm

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70

what is galen’s usefulness of the parts about

anatomy of the body, argues for intelligent design

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71

what is the difference between darwinian evolution and galen’s teleology

darwin says creatures are always being optimized, galen says creatures are already optimized

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72

how many temperaments/ mixtures/ kraseis does galen say there are

9

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73

what is galen’s on the natural faculties about

what are the capacities and faculties that make the body parts function how they do

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74

what are the 4 natural faculties for fetal development in galens opinion

attraction, assimilation, excretion, and growth

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75

what is vitalism

each organ is made of a unique tissue and each has a particular capacity to perform a particular function

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76

what is falsification

you can not prove a theory, you can only disprove a theory with a critical experiment

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77

what is apodeixis

logical demonstration

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78

what is an ad hoc explanation

an argument that explains why some experimental result in particular should be disregarded

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79

what is the issue galen has with erasistratus’s body model

breathing is to receive a quality from the air, arteries carry blood, arteries are active

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80

what does galen believe breathing is for

to cool the blood

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81

what is galen’s exercise with a small ball

a game that is the best form of exercise

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82

why is the exercise with the small ball the best

it imitates war

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83

what is the alexandrian medical education based on

16 of galens booksw

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84

when nestorian christians fled byzantium, what language did they translate greek into

syriac

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85

who was hunayn ibn ishaq and what is he known for

physician in arabia, translated many galen books and plato and aristotle

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86

how is the way hunanyn ibn ishaq translated different from before

tried to communicate the meaning of the texts, not word for word

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87

what is hunayn ibn ishaq’s on his galen translations about

lists the works translated that were originally by galen

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88

who was rhazes and what bodily model did he follow

an arabic doctor, followed humoral theory

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89

what is prophetic medicine

recommendations concerning health by prophet mohammed

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90

who is ibn sina and what did he do

muslim philosopher, wrote over 450 works

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91

what is ibn sina’s canon of medicine about and when was it written

medical encyclopedia, becomes standard medical textbook, written in 1025

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92

what did ibn sina include into the four humor theory in arabic medicine

seasons, times of life, and zodiac signs

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93

for ibn sina, what are the 3 pheumas

natural, vital, and psychic

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94

what was the framework for the renaissance

greek, roman, and arabic learning re-entered the intellectual culture

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95

when was the renaissance

14th c CE

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96

what made the printing press so important

speed of printing, reduced cost, and improved reproducibility

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97

who was vesalius

dutch dr, anatomistw

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98

what is vesalius most famous for publishing

on the fabric of the human body

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99

what was interesting about how vesalius did dissections

he did them himself instead of having an assistant do it

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100

who made the woodcuts for vesalius’s art

renaissance painter titian

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