Characteristics of life study guide Unit 2

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108 Terms

1

have cells

characteristic of life

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displaying organization

characteristic of life

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Grows and develops

characteristic of life

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Respond to stimuli

characteristic of life

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maintain homeostasis

characteristic of life

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require energy

characteristic of life

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adapt and evolve

characteristic of life

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reproduce

characteristic of life

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Biology

study of organisms

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protista

all unicellular organisms, more complex

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Fungi

unicellular or multicellular all hetertrophic

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plantae

multicellular plants that make their ownfood

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Animalia

Multicellular and they eat their food

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prokaryotic cells

do not have a membrane-bound nucleus or organelles

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eukaryotic cells

contain a nucleus and organelles bound by plasma membranes.

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Cell

building blocks of life

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Prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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bacteria

single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

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Cells, tissue, organs, organ systems

levels of organization

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tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function.

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Organ

A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

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organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

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Community

All the different populations that live together in an area

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Ecosystem

A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

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Biosphere

part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere

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Abiotic

Non-living

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Biotic

living

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Ecology

Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

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ultimate source of energy

solar energy

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Photosynthesis

Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

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cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

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Reactants

A starting material in a chemical reaction

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Products

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

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carbon dioxide, solar energy and water

Photosynthesis formula

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energy flow

the flow of energy from an ecosystem to an organism and from one organism to another

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Trophic Levels

The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from primary producers to primary consumers, secondary consumers and so on.

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primary producers

the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms

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primary consumers

animals that feed on producers; ex. herbivores

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secondary consumers

eat primary consumers

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tertiary consumers

eat secondary consumers

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10% rule

Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.

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Biomagnification

accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain

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Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food

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Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

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Herbivore

A consumer that eats only plants.

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Carnivore

A consumer that eats only animals.

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shivering

response to cold; body shakes to turn energy from food into body heat

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sweating

Getting rid of excess heat through pores in the skin to stay cool.

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Fevers

common in viral and bacterial infections to combat the invading organism

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positive feedback loop

a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified

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negative feedback loop

Causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving

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Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

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Ectotherm

An animal whose body does not produce much internal heat

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Endotherm

An organism that is internally warmed by a heat-generating metabolic process

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Growth vs. Development

Growth is getting bigger, and developing is sudden change in appearance

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Zygote

fertilized egg

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embryo

An organism in the earliest stage of development

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fetus

In humans, the term for the developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth.

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Growth

the process of increasing in physical size.

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development

A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.

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metamorphosis

change of form

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Phototropism

Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.

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Gravitropism

A growth response to gravity

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Stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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responce

a reaction to a stimulus

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Benefits of sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction produces a greater chance of variation within a species than asexual reproduction would.

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This variation improves the chances that a species will adapt to his environment and survive.

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disadvantage of asexual reproduction

the offspring has no genetic variation, thus making all the offspring identical to one another

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how to tell if organisms belong to the same species

if they can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring

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Budding

A form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.

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Fragmentation

A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals.

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binary fission

A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

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fragmentation vs regeneration

fragmentation is where new organisms are formed and regeneration is where parts of an organism regrow.

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pollinators

Animals that carry pollen from one flower to another

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Overy

produces eggs

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Anther

the part of a stamen that contains the pollen.

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pollen

A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants

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ovule

A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.

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seed

The plant structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering

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fruit

A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.

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human life cycle

A set of stages of human development that each present different challenges to be met or skills to be acquired.

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egg

Female sex cell

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Sperm

Male sex cell

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Ovary

A flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop.

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Mitosis

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

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Metosis

a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.

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disadvantage of hermaphroditic plant reproducing with itself

deleterious effects of inbreeding on their progeny

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Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

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Hybrid

Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

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sterile

incapable of reproducing

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fertile

Able to produce good crops

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Gametes

sex cells

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somatic cells

body cells

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Pollination

The transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants

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Fertilization

Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

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natural selection

A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

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survival of the fittest

Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection

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acclimation

an organism's change in response to a change in the organism's environment

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Adaption

A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

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