Midterm 2

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Social interaction motivates smiling. Smiling can reflect a person’s emotional state of happiness, but presumably, this is not always true

  • Study 1: The researcher observed the nonverbal behaviors of 350 bowlers.

    • Results showed that bowlers who look and communicate with others smiled more.

  • Study 2: In the same context (bowling alley), researchers observed from a different angle.

    • Result: Bowlers rarely smiled when facing the pins or when bowling alone. A smile can have different meanings. In some of the bowling videotapes, people smile to apologize for their clumsy performance in bowling (i.e. accidentally dropping a bowling ball before bowling)

  • Study 3: Photographs of fans watching a hockey game.

    • Result: Fans smile more when interacting with others and if their supporting team is winning.

  • Study 4: Observed pedestrians nonverbal behavior while crossing a street in New York under pleasant or unpleasant weather.

    • Result: Pedestrians were more likely to smile when interacting with other people. Also, they were more likely to smile when their pleasant weather outside.

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Social interaction motivates smiling. Smiling can reflect a person’s emotional state of happiness, but presumably, this is not always true

  • Study 1: The researcher observed the nonverbal behaviors of 350 bowlers.

    • Results showed that bowlers who look and communicate with others smiled more.

  • Study 2: In the same context (bowling alley), researchers observed from a different angle.

    • Result: Bowlers rarely smiled when facing the pins or when bowling alone. A smile can have different meanings. In some of the bowling videotapes, people smile to apologize for their clumsy performance in bowling (i.e. accidentally dropping a bowling ball before bowling)

  • Study 3: Photographs of fans watching a hockey game.

    • Result: Fans smile more when interacting with others and if their supporting team is winning.

  • Study 4: Observed pedestrians nonverbal behavior while crossing a street in New York under pleasant or unpleasant weather.

    • Result: Pedestrians were more likely to smile when interacting with other people. Also, they were more likely to smile when their pleasant weather outside.

According to the research conducted in naturalistic observations, when are people most likely to smile? In other words, what motivates smiling?

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Why might people stereotype others based on how they sound? What is this hypothesis called?

People might stereotype others based on their voice because a beautiful, good voice is seen as more credible, pleasant, and friendly to be around. This is hypothesis is called the voice attractiveness stereotype.

  • Example: A well-dressed professor with a clear, robust voice is seen as more friendly and pleasant to be around.

  • Example: A well-dressed professor who speak in a squeaky or high-pitched voice is seen as less credible.

  • Attractive voices are more powerful, strong, assertive, and dominant.

  • Babyishness is seen positively by female voices, but male voices are seen negatively.

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What are the two important qualities of an attractive voice? Describe each one.

Pitch: neither high or low (varies throughout the conversation)


  • Resonance: the fullness of sound in the facial cavity (i.e. smooth and strong)

  • Articulation: production of crisp and distinct speech sounds

  • Volume: how loud are you?

In an attractive voice, people should have moderate levels of resonance, articulation, and volume.

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What does the research say about different types of touch and tipping in restaurants?

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What are the phases in the seduction process?

  • Exhibitionist voice: high-pitched, loud, and fast voice in males. This is a process of showing confidence and vital in hopes of getting the women’s attention.

  • Attention phase: seducer has found someone appealing

  • Recognition phase: seducers gain the target’s attention; they might start to pull up with a conversation with the target

  • Interaction phase: voice is soft and quiet (low in pitch, monotone)

    • Verbally, use words like baby, honey or sweetie. When laughing, they move their head forward.

  • If all goes well, it ends with the resolution stage (sexual intercourse occurs)

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Why are certain vocalic cues able to communicate affection?

  • Affection communication is key for human survival and goal of producing offspring.

  • Usually, it is reported that using a high-pitched voice is seen as affectionate. It creates an atmosphere of friendliness rather than aggressiveness.

  • But why does a male low-pitched voice seem more attractive?

    • High-pitched baby talk is seen as a weakness (vulnerable and tenderness). This conveys a message of warmth, affection, and trust.

    • Low-pitched implies that males are masculine and have strong muscular bodies. The high release of Testeronne show females that the male counter partner have good hormonal health.

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What does affectionate exchange theory argue?

Affectionate exchange theory argues that there are certain vocal sounds that work better to communicate affection.

  • Stereotypical males are seen by society as a strong competent person. When males are using high-pitched baby talk, they are viewed as tender and vulnerable. On their first date, they used a high-pitched voice to convey that they are trustworthy, warm, and affectionate.

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What are the functions of silence? Explain.

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What are the different dimensions for crowding? Explain.

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What is behavioral matching?

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What are cultural display rules? What are cultural decoding rules?

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Explain what intimate terrorism and common couple violence is. How are they difference from each other?

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How is common couple violence associated with different conflict management tactics?

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Wha are tie-signs?

Your partner is taken.

Signal that a couple prefers to be alone and therefore is unavailable for communication with “outsiders”

More common in dating stages rather than in married couples.

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How is relational stage associated with touch in public for romantic partners? (Talk about research findings)

  • Behavioral matching: similarity between partners; helps increase attraction and perception of communication competence

    • Example: Both partners use little or a lot of touching

    • The amount of public touch used by heterosexual romantic couples would be similar, especially for married couples.

  • Seriously dating couples touched each other more often in the hand and waist areas. They use touch to show their interest, escalate intimacy, and bondedness with one another.

  • Dating and married partners touch each other with similar frequency regardless of their relational stage.

  • Men initiate touch more in earlier stages of dating while women initiate touch more in married relationships.

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Based on research findings, what does smiling indicate?

Smiling indicates friendliness. Smiling can reflect a person’s emotional state of happiness, but presumably, this is not always true.

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What is demand-withdraw conflict pattern?

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What commonality does demand-withdraw conflict patterns have with common couple violence?

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What is baby talk?

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Vocal behaviors of baby talk.

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What is the “good voice”?

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Vocal Qualities:

Vary from speaker to speaker based on your individual anatomy (born with it)

  • Can’t be modified by the speaker

  • Nasally or graspy

  • Thinning of voice sound

  • Residence: the amount of fullness

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Vocal Properties

Characteristic of the voice that can be modified by all speakers

  • How loud are we speaking?

  • Up or down in pitch

  • Ability to stress certain syllables to create different meanings.

    • Light House Keeper: a keeper of a lighthouse

    • Light House Keeper: someone who does little at taking care of the house

  • Tone

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Temporal characteristics

Aspects of speech that are function of time

  • How fast or slow are we speaking?

  • Speech duration: How long do we give up the stage for the other person to speak.

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Phonetic pause

Very short, quick pause (0-250ms)

  • With human ear we can not detect phonetic pause; only a spectrogram can detect it.

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Silent pauses

250 ms or greater; no sound

  • Can be detect by the human ear.

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Filled pause:

250 ms or greater, has sound

  • Example: hmmm (dysfluently)

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Response latency

The amount of time between one person stops speaking and the next person starts talking.

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Emotional states

allow us to convey the emotions we are experiencing through paralanguage

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How do we regulate the flow of conversation?

Turn yielding cues that depend on the context.

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Examples of different yielding cues

Declarative statement: pitch will decrease as a sign that we are yielding the floor

Request: inhaling audibly

Prevent people from speaking: filled pause and increasing volume

Speak faster for the purpose of not letting the other person inject

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What happens when our cognitive load increases?

Stutter, filled pause, slow down

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Speaker characteristics:

better chance of guessing someones’ characteristics based on their paralanguage (age? cultural? personality?)

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Methods for Studying Emotional Qualities of the Voice (content standard) -- Encoding factors

Participants were asked to read a standardized passage in two different environments while being recoded. Some got the news that they just won the lottery and others were stressed.

  • Random splicing: preserved the paralanguage, but take away the words

  • Put under a tone generator: Sounds with different paralanguage behavior and seeing what emotions arise from the participants. (look at notes for data result)

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Cognitive State of speech production

On top of planning what to say, emotions create a cognitive overload.

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While we are deciding/planning what to say, what kind of speech will people engage in?

Speech hesitation (unsure what we going to say, so we are prepping/planning on what we want to say. When we are thinking about what to say, we increase the usage of gestures.

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Reynold & Pavio Study

Study: described abstract nouns (what is happiness?) vs concrete nouns (ie. mother)

  • Result: Longer responses latency, more silent pauses, and filled pauses during abstract nouns

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Symptom hypothesis:

paralanguage behaviors are system/indicators of how hard our brain is working

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Ambiguous interviewer (i.e. tell me about your family) vs. specific interviewer (i.e. tell me about your job)

Result: Ambiguous interviewer probes more filled and silence pauses than specific interviewers

  • 90% of utterances are 10 words or less

  • 33% are 3 words or less

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What are the three different personalities that affect our paralanguage?

Extraversion, introversion, dominance

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Extraversion Paralanguage style

  • Shorter latency

  • Faster speech rate

  • Slower pause rate

  • Volume: louder

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Introversion Paralanguage Style

  • Longer latency

  • More disfluency

  • Slower speech rate

  • Faster pause rate

  • Volume: softer

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Dominance Paralanguage Style

  • Speak first

  • Duration: talk longer

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Anxiety and Vocal Behavior ( Natale et al., 1979)

  • increased non speech disturbances (unfilled pauses, hesitancies)

  • increased speech disturbances (sentence incompletion or reconstruction, omission, stutter, “ahs”

  • increased response latency

  • increased interruptions

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Pitch is a Behavioral Marker of Social Anxiety Disorder in Men

Study: They had 26 male participants who have been diagnosed with anxiety and 16 did not have anxiety. Researchers measured pitch.

Result: Men (but not women) with Social Anxiety Disorder spoke with a higher pitch during diagnostic interviews than controls.

  • The higher the pitch, the greater the anxiety problems

  • There is a threshold pitch value that clearly differentiates men with and without SAD

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Are there any differences in paralinguistic between East Asian and North American participants

Experiment: negotiation with a confederate (non commitment--neutral; either a Chinese native or English native. They were given two issues to resolve


  • Vocal expressiveness: Canadians were more vocal expressiveness (convey the emotion in their voice)

  • Speech rate: Canadians had a higher speech rate than the Chinese native participants.

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How fast does someone speak? How does that impact our perception of them?

  • A positive association between rate and competence as we speak faster our perception of them being more competent increases if they speak quickly it suggesting they do not need to take time to think about (i.e. system hypothesis = fewer pauses and response latency)

  • Trustworthiness does increase but only to a point if we get too fast in our rate then our perceptions of trustworthiness decease

    • Example: Super fast warnings on product when we can’t fully digest what they are saying then are they trying to sneak something past us

    • We could still perceive them. as competent, but we might not trust them

  • A moderate speech rate would be appropriate (what is culturally typical?)

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How does the amount of talk influence our perception positively?

  • Leadership

  • Control

  • Power

  • Status

  • People will be perceived as more dominant when they talk more. These are informative with the amount of talk for dominance having shared encoding and decoding.

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Decoding Pitch (Apple et al., 1979; Tsatani et al., 2016)

Study: Made tapes of males answering interview questions and either sped them up or slowed them down. Different voices varied their pitch by +20% (high) o -20% (low). After the recording were used to allow participants to rate the pitch by things like trustworthiness, nervousness, etc

Result: high pitched males were judged negatively. They are judged to me less truthful, less empathic, and more nervous than lower-pitched males

  • Men had similar findings for higher-pitched women but lower pitched men were more likely to be perceived as dominant.

  • No differences for women but different in low and high pitched in that low-pitched females were perceived as more trustworthy

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Recognizing a Maternal Voice (Kisilevsky et al., 2003)

Question: Are children born with the ability to recognize and discriminate mother’s voice?

Study: Tape recordings of the mother’s voice or the stranger’s voice were played

  • Subjects were 38.4 weeks GA (average)

  • Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitored

    • Tapes of mother’s voice: increased fetal heart rate

    • Tapes of stranger’s voice: decreased fetal heart rate


  • Measuring FHR dark filled in is mother see that heart rate for mother goes up much highe as evidnece that the fetus could distinguish the different between mother and stranger.

  • They saw that the fetal heart rate for infants goes up much higher for their mother’s voice which is evidence that the fetus could distinguish the difference between their mother and a stranger.

  • In-utero speech experience hypothesis: Tells us that children before they are born can already distinguish differences in paralanguage

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Filled Pauses and Recall (Fraundrof & Watson, 2011) J Memory and Lang


  • Subjects listened to a spoken passage with either filled pauses, nonlinguistic interruptions, or fluent speech


  • Subjects recalled the content of the story best when there were filled pauses

  • Filled pauses may direct attention to the speech stream and this aids in recall

  • The attentional orienting hypothesis: when we hear a filled pause our brain tell us to take a break ad then the brain says this is what I need to focus on again and thus remember more

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Interactive paralanguage and adults (talking about matching)

  • Accommodation/imitation of accent: If interacting with someone with a different accent than us we might develop a southern twang (Giles & Powesland, 1975)

  • Speech rate: As they talk faster or slower we will do the same (Street, 1984)

  • Pauses: If people have more filled or silent pauses we will have the same amount. If they have longer speaking turns we will have longer speaking turns and vice versa. (Cappella & Planalp, 1981)

  • Turn durations/length (Matarazzo & Wiens, 1972)

  • Interruptions (Dindia, 1987; Farley et al., 2010) As they interrupt more we will interrupt more (can be hostile or supportive)

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Interactive and children

Preschool children (3-6 years old) will match speech rate and response latency to that of adult (Cappella & Street, 1989)

Children with also match response duration

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Interactive and Text-based Communication

  • Question: Will people engage in textual paralinguistic mimicry through text-based communication?

  • Method: Experiment- “I’m sorry I already have plans that day. sigh

  • Results: Participants were much more likely to respond with textual paralanguage when the initial text contained textual paralanguage

    • The chameleon effect still happened. To match someone behavior.

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What are the functions of space?

  • Regulation of conversation

  • Sign of status

  • Attitude toward another person (eg., Skojanc, 1991)

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Regulation of conversation

If we increase the distance we can make it almost impossible to have a conversation.

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Sign of status

People with more status have the ability to occupy more space and the types of spaces they occupy

  • Ex. Mark Zuckerberg’s office is huge or G. May

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Attitude toward another person

When we have a favorable attitude with someone we will be ok with sharing more space with them less likely if we don’t like them

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Attitude and space Skojanc (1991)

Subjects interacted with a confederate (Scott) who was introduced as

  • “Just finished up a jail sentence for assault with a weapon”

  • “Just finished up a jail sentence for counterfeiting money”

  • “Is an undergraduate student”

Average distance (in seats)

  • Violent offender (3.7)

  • Nonviolent offender (3.3)

  • Student (2.5)

  • We use space to convey attitude towards others

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What are the three categories of space?

Fixed feature space, semi-fixed feature space, informal or personal space

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Fixed feature space

objects in space that are physically unmovable (i.e. chairs we are sitting in Wellmen)

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Semi-fixed feature space

Items in space that can be moved relatively easily (i.e. chairs in the very back row of Wellman)

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Informal or personal space

invisible barrier around us that we consider our personal space or interpersonal distance

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Organizing Space

  • Sociopetal: jeans to organize it in a way that is conducive to communication (encourage communication) i.e. conference room, tables at restaurants

  • Sociofugal: now space discourages communication to pull apart to keep from mixing i.e. classroom


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Four Regions of Proxemics

  • Intimate

  • Personal

  • Social

  • Public

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  • 0-18 inches, we have heightened communication abilities we can see them, smell them, and touch always occurs in this zone and never in any other zone because have to be 0 inches away to touch us. There are signifiant cultural differences in space. We are more comfortable in to be in our intimate zone.

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  • 18 inches to 4 ft at an arm’s distance.

  • Reserved for people we have closeness

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  • 4 ft to 12 ft we can interact with pretty much everyone

  • We may have to modify our communication when farther away increase volume and our ability to see eye gaze/facial expressions will decrease

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  • 12 ft to infinity not a lot of interpersonal interaction this is available for everyone to see

  • Public communication not interpersonal communication we really have to modify; we have to get much louder and our ability to hear decreases

  • A lot of nonverbal communication with disappear.

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Types of Territory (Ivy & Wahl, 2019)

Primary territories, secondary territories, public territories

Territoriality: think of something in the space or space/objects as something that we own

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Primary territories

  • a territory that we do own and because we own it we get to decide who has access to it

  • We tend to really protect our belonging

  • Example: owning a home, car, computer

  • Invasions of these will elicit emotional responses

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Secondary territories

  • We have a strong sense of owning it but we don’t literally own it (not the only one with access to it)

  • Ex. Brunner’s office o apartment (others can get in there without asking him first), the hotel there

  • We will still react emotionally

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Public territories

  • spaces we occupy on a very temporary basis

  • Example: setting up stuff on the beach, unassigned assigned seats in the lecture hall

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Age and Personal Space Use (Ivy & Wahl, 2019)

Note: Encoder

  • Children and close space

    • Toddlers and space: want to have more distance as their mobility and verbal proficiencies increase they are learning to be independent. Keep Out! sign of experiencing a lot of new things so they might want privacy

    • Young children especially before the age of 2 have a strong affinity for closer space between them and their caregiver (i.e. when parents drop their kids off at daycare they will cry (separation protest)

  • Junior high and high school age children increase their use of personal space

    • Psychological separation theory tell us it is necessary/important for adolescence to want more independence to figure out who we are outside of our family

  • Adult and personal space

    • Patterns tend to disappear based on how an adult views personal space

  • Elderly adults and personal space

    • People either invade older people’s spaces or won’t get in older people’s space because they are afraid they might hurt them this could be problematic because we could not be using the space the way they what. SO it is key to have open communication on what they want

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Culture and Space

  • No universals in space use

  • Contact vs. non contact cultures

  • Remland et al. (1995)

    • Closest: Irish, Scottish, Dutch, Greek, Italian, French

    • Furthest: English

  • Cultures differ in space

  • Individual differences also occur in cultures

    • If not close to US culture, you may not follow the “rules”

    • Latin American, southern Europe

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Contact cultures

Those that are expected to face each other and interact closely, touch more, engage in more eye contact, speak louder, much more okay with being in intimate and personal zones i.e. Arab, Latin America, southern Europe

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Non-contact cultures

less eye contact, less touching, preference for more space i.e. US, East Asia, Northern Europe

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Personality and Use of Personal Space (Knapp et al., 2014)

  • Extraversion: want to be closer to others so we can talk to them

  • Social anxiety: preference to being further away

  • Need for affiliation: want more closeness with a higher need for affiliation

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What the difference between crowding versus density?

Density is a physical phenomena based on number of people or objects occupy in space (a lot of people in a place that doesn’t hold that much people)

Crowding: psychological phenomena (feeling like you have space restriction)

  • Correlated with density: As it more dense, we are likely to experience crowding. You could feel uncomfortable, but there no density involved.

  • Cultural preference

  • Close space with stranger is more “crowding” than with friends (Rustemii, 1992)

  • Personality traits

    • Extraverted: take up more space, desires close to space (Experience less crowding)

    • Introverted: need more space (experience more crowding)

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Decoding Space: Crowding

Close space with strangers is more “crowding” than with friends (Rustemli, 1992)

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Decoding Space: Distance & Arousal

  • Too close increase arousal (changes in skin conductance, heart rate, etc)

  • The closer the invasion, the sooner the evacuation (Felipe & Sommer, 1966)

    • Has a disruptive space

    • Increasing space = adaptor (managing emotional arousal)

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Restaurant Tipping Jacob & Gueguen, 2010 J Hospitality & Tourism Res

  • Female servers approached patrons at either 0.15, 0.45, or 0.75 meters.

  • 478 customers (287 M, 191 F). Customers either dine alone or.

  • A greater number of customers in the close condition left a tip.

  • Customers in close conditions left larger tips than those in the other conditions.

  • Social Impact Theory: people reaware of certain norms and expectations. Even though tipping is not normative in France, people expect that tipping is something normal.

    • The closer the people is in reinforces social pressure. When I am closer, it increases the pressure of leaving a tip to fulfill an expectation.

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Intimacy Equilibrium Theory (Argyle & Dean, 1965)

  • People are subject to two simultaneous motivations in interpersonal interactions

    • Being intimate (approach)

    • Stay separate (avoid)

  • The balance between these two motivations is a point of equilibrium. Sweet spot for approach and avoidance behaviors

    • Frequency of smiling

    • Eye gaze

    • Intimacy automatic

    • Space

  • If one person’s behavior upsets this equilibrium, the other will compensate.

    • Compensate: consistent reliable response

    • We need to bring ourselves back to the point of equilibrium.

    • Example: stands too close to an individual (high on approach) therefore, makes the other individual to move backward (avoidance)

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Arousal Labeling Theory (Patterson, 1976)

  • Close distance creates arousal in the decoder.

  • If this arousal is labeled positively, the decoder will approach (reciprocate).

  • If this arousal is labeled negatively, the decoder will avoid (compensate)

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Organization of facial muscles

  • Eyes/brows

    • Anger: pitch our eyes

  • Nose/cheek

    • Disgust = raise our nose

    • True vs fake smile = raising of cheeks

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Facial “Sign Vehicles” (Ekmann, 1978)

Static, slow, rapid, artificial

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  • Aspects of our face that do not change

    • shape of our face

    • Position of our eyes

    • Color of our eyes

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  • Aspects of our face that change slowly and reliably with age

    • Examples: wrinkles, hair growth, facial hair, gray hair

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Slow Sign Vehicles Predict Mortality

Study: Photographs were taken of 292 people, 82-84 years of age. 12 university students rated the apparent age of the person

Result: Guessed rating varied from 63-85. Those that rate the photographs younger than 84 years old saw slow sign vehicles. Those that guess closer to 84 had more signs of vehicles.

  • Rated 84 years and older: died in the following 6 years

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Face that we can change in a matter of seconds (i.e. emotion: change from a neutral face into a sad, happy, angry, disgusted, etc)

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aspects of our face have been change through artificial means (i.e. color contacts, plastic surgery, hair dye)

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Primary facial expression of emotion

  • happiness/joy

  • sadness

  • anger

  • surprise

  • disgust

  • fear

  • contempt

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Universal Pride Expression?

  • Happy face (smile)

  • Head titled back

  • Chest out

  • Hands on hips

  • Children at young as 4 can identify

  • Isolated African tribal culture can identify

  • Might function to mark/maintain status

  • We don’t have enough evidence to say that pride is a universal expression. Time will tell.

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Facial Styles

  • The withholder

  • The revealer

  • The unwitting expresser

  • The blanked expresser

  • The substitute expresser

  • The frozen affect expresser

  • The ever-ready expresser

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The withholder

people that display little to no emotion

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Always show emotion; even though they might be trying to hide their emotion, some emotions still come up

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Unwitting expressor

Shows emotions, but they don’t realize that they are showing the emotion (they think they are good at covering up their emotion)

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Blanked expressor

Want to express emotion, but is unable to express emotion (they think that are expressing emotion, but they actually are not displaying any emotion on their face)

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Substitute expressor

a person thinks they demonstrating one emotion, but in reality, they are expressing a different emotion (i.e. think we showing anger, but facial expressor shows surprise)

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Frozen-affect expressor

a person always displays some facial expression (resting angry face)

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