ECON 125 Midterm

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When are you being an entrepreneur in your life?

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126 Terms


When are you being an entrepreneur in your life?

-When you start a new company

-When you choose to pursue your minor in Entrepreneurship at UNC

-When you look for an internship

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As we grow up and learn to accept others' opinions, the ability of creativity grows.


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According to the article: "Creativity is a Process, Not a Post-It", what is a big roadblock to creativity?


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Which of the following items is NOT cited as a challenge that can be experienced during brainstorming?

Developing a potential solution through the refinement of ideas discussed

Challenges that CAN be experienced:

-Having your team stray off topic to address other problems

-Effectiveness of brainstorming can be limited by initial group awkwardness

-It is not easy to have boundless freedom in your idea development

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Two founders of a Virtual Reality startup created a rough cardboard representation of a product they are developing and they taped paper sketches of screens a user would scroll through on a cellphone to show how the product would interface with a mobile device. What prototyping technique(s) are being used?

both mock-up and model

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In the article Prototyping: the Design Process to Pressure Test Ideas, which of the following was included as part of the description about Step #2: "Make it Real"?

Keep prototypes rough and simple to start

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A prototype is

-It could be a wall of post-it notes, a gadget you put together, a role-playing activity, or even a storyboard

-Used as a way to prove, or disprove, fundamental assumptions

-Ideally something a user can experience

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"Always prototype as if you know you're ____, but test as if you know you're _____."

right, wrong

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How does the testing phase inform the evolution of your ideas?

by validating or invalidating your assumptions

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prototype testing should not just focus on the average user


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What question should you ask yourself before creating your MVP?

What is the value I'm offering?

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Which of the following is NOT core to the methodology when people are using lean startup?

-Experiment with A/B testing

what is the core methodology of lean startup?


-Validate with a minimum viable product

-Iterate fast

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In the GE Pediatric MRI example that was reviewed in the virtual session, which of the following did the team realize as they were prototyping and testing their ideas?

-they needed to better prepare kids before they came into the MRI room

-feeling scared of doctors and nurses was one of the challenges of the pediatric MRI scanning experience

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According to the article, "Tell it like it is: radical candor is the feedback method your startup needs", it is important that feedback is

specific and actionable

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In the article "how to give negative feedback without sounding like a jerk" which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason that negative feedback is necessary?

None of the above

-most team members want to grow and this is only possible with corrections once in a while

-offering sound negative feedback yields positive results

-employees who get negative feedback are on average likely to work harder to improve it

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Which of the following was referenced during the giving and receiving feedback video?

keep a positive mindset

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Drucker takes IBM's success as an example of:

unexpected occurences

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which of the following is not an inside source of opportunity?

new knowledge

what is an inside source of opportunity?

-the unexpected

-process needs

-industry market structure

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Netflix's success is an example of which of the following changes in industry market structure described by Drucker?


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Which of the following is not mentioned in the article, "Wellness trends for 2020" as a recent trend the presents opportunities in the Wellness space?

Increasing preferences for healthy diets

Stuff mentioned:

-the emergence of AI technology

-the availability of red light therapy

-growing eco-consciousness in society

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Patagonia is aiming to secure a brighter future by

investing in environmentally and socially responsible startups

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Red light can help boost energy, mood and fitness, as well as the appearance of the skin, and sleep quality


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from steve job's commencement speech, which of the following classes did steve job's take and become fascinated in after dropping out of Reed College


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When your team runs into a disagreement about which sport to play, a possible solution is to sign the team up for a mixed sports league where a different sport gets played each week


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Based on Yvonne Bulimo's pitch of Zoezi, Zoezi seeks to create a new wave of Afro-Centric creativity in fitness


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According to researchers from Project Aristotle, teams were found to be less successful if they allowed members to speak equally rather than have experts dominate topics in their areas


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which of the following is not one of the four stages of teaming according to the Truckman model?


these stages are a part of model:




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according to the article "What Google Learned from Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team", in order to establish psychological safety, team members should shy away from emotional sharing and focus just on efficiency


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which of the following were cited aspects of ways to conduct an empathy interview?

-you can interact with and interview users through both scheduled meetings and "intercept" encounters

-seek to experience what users experience

-view users and their behaviors in the context of their lives

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which of the following is a key reason to ask neutral questions when conducting an empathy interview?

to avoid implying that there is a "correct" answer

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you should conduct empathy interviews before deciding on your team's opportunity area


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which of the following concepts is NOT part of the principle "Bias towards Action"

using google docs to replace team meetings

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in the pediatric MRI example, what did Doug and his team not consider as fully as they should have in their initial design?

the perspective of the user

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according to the article, "Design Thinking: A 5 stage process", which of the following describes the stage empathize?

setting aside personal assumptions in order to gain insight into users and their needs

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in the virtual session, which of the following was NOT cited as one of the key reasons to use empathy maps?

-remove bias from our designs

reasons cited:

-align the team on a single, shared understanding of the user

-uncover user needs that the user themselves may not even be aware of

-synthesizing secondary research about your target user

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Based on the reading, which of the following is a good practice for developing how might we questions?

seek to balance being narrow enough to give some focus to brainstorming, but broad enough to allow for exploring wild ideas

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according to the article, "define and frame your design challenge by creating your POV and ask "HMW", whcih one of the following is important to creating a POV?

-guiding your innovation efforts

-inspiring your team

-providing a narrow focus

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Scholars can predict who will become an entrepreneur

need for achievement

believes in themself

risk seeking

however, they cannot predict who will succeed

-81% of entrepreneurs believe chances of success are greater than 70%

-while 75% of new businesses do not survive more than five years

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Who is an entrepeneur?

-middle age

-highly educated

-little external funding from VC/angels

-not all risk takers

-not just about owning a business

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-it is a mindset and a career path

-it is creating a business, not just running a business


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Why aren't there more entrepreneurs?

need 2 characteristics:

-ability to take action

-relentless pursuit of change

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how do we systematically look for opportunity?

-the key is to look for change because where there's change, there's also opportunity

-entrepreneurs generally don't create change, but they do exploit it

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the study of entrepreneurship seeks to understand how opportunities are discovered or created by a person or team who then assemble various resources in order to exploit the opportunities and create wealth

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Peter Drucker Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Inside Sources)

7 sources of innovation

Inside sources - require knowledge of an industry based upon inside experience

-The unexpected: success (Facebook), failure (Ford Edsel), outside event (Hurricane Katrina)

-Incongruities: things that don't make sense, usually from the misguided belief that "I know what the customer wants." This will lead to an incongruity between what your customer wants and what you think they want. Can happen within the rhythm or logic of a process. it is a part of the process everyone hates, but identifying incongruities can lead to finding opportunities for innovation. (ex: healthcare)

-Process needs: taking a process that already exists and improving it by incorporating newly available knowledge, or providing a "missing link". Need to answer five questions for something to need process improvement

-Is it a self-contained process that can be analyzed?

-Is there a single weak or missing link?

-Do you have a clear definition of your objective?

-Can your solution be communicated clearly?

-Is there high receptivity for your ideas?

Industry market structure: take a look at the industry whole to see if it is experiencing rapid change (usually about 40% in 10 years). Could be rapid growth (industry growing faster than the economy), maturation (industry has roughly doubled its size in a relatively short period of time, initial strategies are no longer relevant and can lead to new opportunity), convergence of multiple industries (convergence of technologies that were previously separate) or a fundamental change in the business model (if the fundamental nature of an industry changes, there is opportunity for innovation)

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Peter Drucker Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Outside Sources)

Outside sources: areas of opportunity outside your immediate experience and are based on measurable and predictable trends in the society at large

Demographics: change in demographics such as population size, employment, education, etc, change in anything that will have fairly predictable consequences

Changes in perception: changes in what people like and don't like

New knowledge: coming up with a big idea is a matter of looking in the right places and having an entrepreneurial mindset. This is the riskiest source of innovation and it typically takes decades for new knowledge to be translated into a viable product or service

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Primary research

Information gathered directly from respondents/customers

-interviews, questionnaires, mystery shopping, focus groups, product tests, diaries

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Secondary research:

information that has already been collected for a previous purpose

-sales reports, trade associations, census data, websites, previous market research, sales force input competitive intelligence

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Why prototype?

Prototyping quickly, and frequently, is the best way to test your assumptions, learn about users, and improve on your ideas

Prototypes can be anything from sketches on a napkin to role-playing: just anything that lets you make your ideas tangible and testable

Reasons to prototype:

-empathy gaining





-solve disagreement

-start a conversation

-fail quickly and cheaply

-manage the solution-building process

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High-fidelity prototype

-High-fidelity prototypes appear and function as similar as possible to the actual product

-Usually allow realistic user interactions

E.g. going from paper-based to computer-based

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Lean startup flowchat

-Decide on your idea

-create hypothesis (because we believe Z, if we do X, we expect Y to happen)

-generate MVPs (test hypotheses quickly and with the least possible expidenture of resources)

-Prioritize MVPs (sequence MVPs that will minimize cash burn while you are learning)

-Run tests

-Pivot or achieve product-market fit (either find the solution that matches the problem or realize the MVP validates or rejects the hypothesis and has to pivot and a new set of assumptions or hypotheses that you're going to test)


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Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

a product that includes just enough features to allow useful feedback from early adopters

-makes it easier for the company to speed to market with subsequent customer-driven versions of the product

-mitigates the likelihood of a company wasting time on features that nobody wants

Your low resolution prototype will evolve into a high-resolution prototype, then to a series of MVPs, finally to a full product

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Tools and techniques to test MVPs

-Customer/empathy interviews (great for finding out what people love/hate and why)

-Surveys (make sure to ask good questions)

-Letters of intent (some proof of commitment from customers)

-Usability tests (let people interact with your product - 80% of major problems can be identified by samples of

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Examples of pivots

-change the target customer segments by narrowing them or broadening them

-change the product itself by adding features or by taking features away

-more dramatic change (from b-2-c to b-2-b)

-Change in business model

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Discipline of Innovation article

Entrepreneurship does not refer to an organization's size but their activity, requires more hard work than just a flash of innovation, Ford edsel (unexpected failure), IBM modern accounting machine used for libraries, novocaine unexpected use

incongruities -cataract eye surgery, roll on roll off container ship

Process needs- reflector on roads in Japan, advertising in newspapers

Industry and market changes- institutional investors dominating the financial industry

Demographic changes- japanese lead in robotics,

Changes in perception- worries about health in the U.S.

New knowledge- more market dependent than others, hard to direct, likely to fail, long lead times for convergence of knowledge

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Alex Kremer, Patagonia

Alex Kremer is a Corporate Development & Investment Principal at Patagonia and Tin Shed Ventures, working on Patagonia's investment, innovation, and other strategic initiatives, including Patagonia's used gear business, Worn Wear ( and external projects, such as Regenerative Organic Certification. Tin Shed Ventures invests in responsible startups with innovations that help Patagonia build the best product while causing the least amount of environmental harm. The Tin Shed portfolio includes a wide range of startups, such as Bureo, Tersus Solutions, NuMat Technologies, and Revolution Fibres. Tin Shed Ventures has invested in more than a dozen startups on 3 continents. Prior to Patagonia & Tin Shed Ventures, Alex held various investment roles received degrees from Boston College (BA in Math & Economics) and the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College (MBA).

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Doug Warf, President for MDO Holdings

Doug Warf is the President for MDO Holdings - a Raleigh-based investment and management firm. Warf oversees all business operations for MDO Holdings Operating Portfolio companies, which include: O2 Fitness Clubs, Midtown Yoga, Parlor Blow Dry Bar, BB's Crispy Chicken, CycleBar and the Durham Food Hall. Warf also counsels several key companies in the MDO Holdings Investment Portfolio on business strategy and marketing. Prior to joining MDO Holdings, Warf spent 16 years with the Carolina Hurricanes in various sales and marketing roles. His last seven years he served as the Vice President of Marketing - overseeing the Canes four major marketing departments and spearheaded key events like the 2011 NHL All-Star Game and two separate re-designs of the Hurricanes uniform sets.

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Jennifer Cohen, Author, Host of Habits&Hustle, Forbes Columnist, Mental Performance Couch

Jennifer Cohen, author, entrepreneur, fitness and health expert has emerged as an influential role model for the fitness industry. Her stellar reputation has been built on a savvy, straight-talking approach and belief in a "clean living" lifestyle that forgoes the fads and focuses on long-term, sustainable results. Ms. Cohen is also a spokesperson for world class brands including Weight Watchers and Muscle Milk. She is now devoted to employing her extensive knowledge to help individuals improve their lifestyle through No Gym Required. She has appeared in multiple media outlets, some of which include The Today Show, Good Morning America, Glamour, Seventeen, Woman's Health, Wall Street Journal and the LA Times. As an author, Jennifer's bestselling book, No Gym Required - Release Your Inner Rock Star (2009) is a no-nonsense fitness and health reference that serves as an overall healthy lifestyle guide. She has also had columns appear in Men's Fitness, and Forbes. Jennifer is the owner of Momentum by Iron in Santa Monica, and President and CEO of NGR - No Gym Required - a fitness brand that offers products and services focused on her "anytime, anywhere, no excuses" health and fitness philosophy.

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Marilou McFarlane, SportsTech Startup Strategy & Growth Leader, Women in Sports Tech (WiST) Founder

Serving as a growth catalyst in a variety of leadership roles in the sportstech business for over 10 years, Marilou has a long track record working with sportstech startups setting growth strategy, launching products, building brands and strategic partnerships in emerging markets, and accelerating revenue. With the first half of her career spent in media and marketing with CBS, she has extensive experience leading business development, end-to-end marketing and product innovation, generating over $60M in revenue and positioning multiple businesses for successful acquisition. She has built a global network of strong relationships that includes the winningest NCAA and academy coaches in the U.S. across all sports, professional team and club administrators, the biggest sports companies and brands in the world, award-winning creative talent and elite athlete management agencies. With the mission to drive growth opportunities for women in the sports tech business, she founded the non-profit Women in Sports Tech in late 2017, helping to develop the diverse talent of tomorrow by connecting them with meaningful careers in sportstech and innovation. Partners include IBM Sports, Nike, the NBA, Catapult Sports, Spartan, and more. A frequent speaker, judge and mentor for organizations such as CES, SXSW, Hashtag Sports, Harvard Business School, and SportTechie, she is one of SportsTechX's Most Innovative Global Leaders in the Sportstech Business in 2020 and was honored as a 2019 Bay Area Woman to Watch. She currently runs a consultancy practice, SportsTechWorks.

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Tin Shed Ventures

Patagonia's corporate venture capital fund, which we use to invest in environmentally and socially responsible start-up companies, funds the next generation of responsible businesses, doesn't demand short term returns like most other investment firms

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Patagonia Worn Wear

reselling Patagonia apparel, extend the life of gear because the best thing we can do for the planet is cut down on consumption and get more use out of stuff we already own, repair, share and recycle gear

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Jennifer Cohen Wellness Trends for 2020

mind-body fitness, home is the new fitness studio due to companies like Hydrow and Peloton, AI ex. Tonal, meditation, NAD, Red light therapy, plant based meats, CBD, growing eco consciousness

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Braden Rawls, CEO & Co-founder at Vital Plan

CEO & Co-Founder at Vital Plan, Braden Rawls co-founded Vital Plan in 2009 with her father, Dr. Bill Rawls, a conventionally-trained physician who discovered the value of herbal therapy during his recovery from chronic Lyme disease. Their shared goals of providing clinical-grade herbal extracts, formulation transparency, and unparalleled customer support and education formed the foundational principles of the company. Thanks to Dr. Rawls' expertise and thought leadership combined with extensive R&D and a complex global supply chain, Vital Plan is able to deliver a unique and robust product line, step-by-step wellness plans, and unparalleled support to meet and exceed customers' needs and expectations. Vital Plan is on a mission to empower, inspire, and educate people to take control of their health. A certified B Corporation®, Vital Plan is built on trust and a paragon of honesty in an industry rife with false promises and quick fixes. Vital Plan is building more than a customer base; they are empowering a community of people to live healthful, sustainable, purpose-filled lives. Braden serves as a sustainable business and lifestyle leader at the company and in her community. She is an advocate for the change that enlightened choices in consumerism can bring, and for empowering customers through product transparency and education.

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Yvonne Bulimo, founder of Zoezi sports

Founder at Zoeszi Sport, Yvonne Bulimo, is proudly Kenyan born and American raised. She fell in love with science from an early age, with big dreams of running her own public health organization in Sub Saharan Africa. After graduating from Howard University with her Bachelor's degree in Health Science, she moved back home to reconnect with her roots. She began hosting a popular Kenyan TV show and it was there when her fitness and entrepreneurship journey began. Yvonne started her first business, a production company with the mission to create compelling and entertainment Digital content. Her first project "The Brunch Series" is still getting views on YouTube. A jane of all trades, she also sold custom made wedding dresses to keep both businesses going. After embarking on her fitness journey, she noticed she couldn't find brands that connected with her in Kenya, "I didn't see myself reflected in them. So, I started a new journey, to create what I wanted to see. It is my vision that ZOEZI inspires you to feel good, and by looking good while working out, you'll be more motivated to stay fit". Read more about her journey on Black Enterprise.

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Kristi Herold, Founder and CEO of Sport & Social Group Inc

Nothing makes Kristi happier than knowing the Sport & Social Group she founded is positively impacting the lives of millions by connecting people and communities through play. A born entrepreneur, Kristi ran a variety of businesses throughout high school and university. In 1996, she combined her passion for sport, business, and socializing when she founded the Sport & Social Club in Toronto. Kristi has since grown the organization - now named the Sport & Social Group - to be one of the largest clubs of its kind in the world, with 35 full time and 300 part-time employees. The SSG now has close to 150,000 participants playing sports annually. By consolidating the adult recreational sports industry, Kristi's vision is to get over 1 million people playing annually across North America. She is well on the way to achieving this, having completed seven corporate acquisitions in Canada and one US acquisition in the last three years. Kristi spearheaded the SSG's partnership with the charity "Right to Play", donating over $300,000 for this fantastic program which teaches life skills to vulnerable children around the world through sport. In 2009, Kristi was awarded the Governor General's "Queen's Diamond Jubilee" award in recognition of her contribution to the community. Kristi has most recently launched "Keep Playing Kids", a foundation that will provide free sports programming for underserved children. Kristi speaks regularly and has been interviewed by Forbes and Fast Company on the importance of healthy organizational culture as well as the power and health benefits of play throughout our lives. Kristi was thrilled that the SSG received a "Great Places to Work Certification" in 2019. In 2020 Kristi was the proud recipient of the North American Sport & Social Industry Association's "Industry Impact Award". Kristi is a prior EO member and has completed EO/MIT's "Entrepreneur Masters Program". In addition to speaking, Kristi passionately mentors entrepreneurs and actively contributes and gives back to the community. In 2009 she founded a community musical theatre troupe in Toronto as a passion project which has since spun off into two other community musical theatre troupes which have raised over half-a-million dollars for their charity partner "Childhood Now" which teaches life skills to vulnerable children through the arts.

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Bill Ferro, President, Founder and CEO of Betr Health

Over forty diseases are now linked to poor gut health. Thousands of individuals from all walks and seasons of life have been able to restore their microbiome, uncover trigger foods and free themselves from dieting, frustration, disease and medications. As the founder my mission is to empower people from all walks and seasons of life to live happier and healthier. As the CEO of the highest rated digital health care company I carry my day to day responsibilities with vigor and respect. As a leader I want to our team to be beaming proud of the work they are doing and the place they are doing it. It's a once in a lifetime opportunity to change the way chronic disease is treated and I feel fortunate to be right at the heart of the paradigm shift.

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Yvonne Bulimo Interview

Looked at what her mom did (real estate broker, manages business), ZOEZI (means exercise in swahili) spoke to her culture and fill a gap in the market, The first step was going to foodies (tailor) and she had fabric and asked them to make things with it , Took her a year and half to find a manufacturer and lots of research on fabrics, 2015 idea and the first sample was 2017, Challenge- when she put it out to the market she was living in DC and she needed to know how the product would get to east africa how to make ZOEZI reach a variety of people, She practiced marketing it to herself and wanted to be very inclusive different shapes and sizes, Her fear was that no one would buy the product and got over that by first selling to her friends and family, How does she differentiate? activewear is a billion dollar industry, speaks to the world, and creates in africa, kenyans are very strong and love fashion

She would tell her younger self to slow down and be patient and have more confidence, Her mom had all the business knowledge and google EIN number, differences between LLC and escort, taxes, legalzoom, etc. In the next 5,10,15 years she sees her business up there with Nike, she wants stores all over the world and especially in Africa. People can purchase zoezi in boutiques, online, kenya, tanzania, ny, mostly e- commerce. Kenyan born but global fashion forward fitness brand. Bridge the gap between the diaspora and the kenyan community.

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Sport & Social Group Inc article

A business dedicated to helping people get off the couch and play team sports in adult recreational leagues. Create space for free play and relaxed chats,, trivia and bingo during and after work hours, keep celebrating milestones and good news, eat lunch as a team, start an office club, give back

1. Search For Get-Togethers In Your City

2. Survey Your Colleagues: What evening(s) are you free to play?, What sports are of interest to you? What's your skill level in the sports of interest? What are your objectives in playing on a company team? (ie. Highly competitive, win at all cost and/or just get out to play for fun and to be social, don't care if we ever win a game)

3. Narrow Down The Options

4. Get Your Company To Foot (Most Of) The Bill

5. Keep Playing!

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Steve Jobs speech

He never graduated from college

Connecting the dots - dropped out of Reed college, he was adopted unexpectedly, mother had never graduated from college and father didn't from high school, his parents guaranteed his biological mom that he'd go to college, He dropped out, Took calligraphy class that interested him, Did not have hope of practical application in his life, mac was first computer with beautiful typefaces, You cannot connect the dots looking forward

Love and loss- Found what he loved to do early in life, started apple in his garage at 20, Released the macintosh at 30 then he got fired, visions diverged between him and someone else and the board of directors sided with the other guy, He was a public failure but he still loved what he did so he started over, Lightness of being a beginner made him creative and he started Pixar and Next and then Apple bought next

Death- When he was 17 he read the quote, Remembering he'll be dead soon is the best way to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose, death gives you the courage to follow your heart and intuition

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Group norms

Norms are the traditions, behavioral standards and unwritten rules that govern how we function when we gather

The right norms, in other words, could raise a group's collective intelligence, whereas the wrong norms could hobble a team, even if, individually, all the members were exceptionally bright.

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Two behaviors good teams share

First, on the good teams, members spoke in roughly the same proportion, a phenomenon the researchers referred to as ''equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking.'' On some teams, everyone spoke during each task; on others, leadership shifted among teammates from assignment to assignment. But in each case, by the end of the day, everyone had spoken roughly the same amount.

Second, the good teams all had high ''average social sensitivity'' — a fancy way of saying they were skilled at intuiting how others felt based on their tone of voice, their expressions and other nonverbal cues.

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Psychological safety

'a sense of confidence that the team will not embarrass, reject or punish someone for speaking up,'' Edmondson wrote in a study published in 1999. ''It describes a team climate characterized by interpersonal trust and mutual respect in which people are comfortable being themselves.''

Amy Edmonson

Creativity is embraced and people won't be judgemental

Chilean mining crisis was successful because:

Humble in the face of the challenge ahead

Curious about what others bring

Willing to take risks to learn quickly

Situational humility combined with curiosity led to psychological safety

The basic human challenge - it's hard to learn if you already know

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In a team, you need

Psychological safety



-Lots of startups fail because they can't execute as a team

-Need to create the right conditions when establishing a team

-Respect and psychological safety (coined by Amy Edmonson) are important

-Humble in the face of challenge, curious about what others bring, willing to take risks to learn quickly

-Situational humility with curiosity creates psychological safety

-It is hard to learn if you already know

-A place where creativity is embraced and people won't be judgemental

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Tuckman's model

Forming: In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead. This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict

Storming: In this stage, people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail. Tension, struggle and sometimes arguments occur. The ideal is that team members will not feel that they are being judged, and will therefore share their opinions and views. The goal is to get to a point where they can resolve their differences, and members are able to participate with one another more comfortably

Norming: Resolved disagreements and personality clashes result in greater intimacy, and a spirit of co-operation emerges." In this stage, all team members take responsibility and have the ambition to work for the success of the team's goals. They start tolerating the whims and fancies of the other team members. They accept others as they are and make an effort to move on. The danger here is that members may be so focused on preventing conflict that they are reluctant to share controversial ideas. There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming, because, as new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into behavior from the storming stage.

Performing: "With group norms and roles established, group members focus on achieving common goals, often reaching an unexpectedly high level of success." By this time, they are motivated and knowledgeable. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team. It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance

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"With group norms and roles established, group members focus on achieving common goals, often reaching an unexpectedly high level of success." By this time, they are motivated and knowledgeable. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team. It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance

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Technique for empathy interviewing in design thinking

-By entering and understanding another person's thoughts, feelings, and motivations, we can understand the choices that person makes, we can understand their behavioral traits, and we are able to identify their needs

-Being on the receiving end of empathy interviews is to feel heard

-Importance of empathy interviews:

--An empathy interview is about active listening and active hearing

--Empathy interviews allow users to speak about what is important to them.

--They focus on the emotional and subconscious aspects of the user.

--They allow interviewers to gain insights on how users behave in given environments and situations.

--They can reveal solutions you might not have discovered otherwise, or unmet needs and challenges you might be overlooking.

--Empathy interviews are about getting deeper and going beyond your run of the mill questions.

--They're about making the subject feel at ease so he or she can shed the mask and speak from the heart.

--They offer interviewers a chance to observe body language and reactions of the subjects. This allows for spontaneous questions based on observations.

-Interview subjects

-Focus on averages, middles, and extremes

-Averages and middles fall within the mainstream

-They are more predictable in their choices and tastes

-Extremes fall outside of the mainstream

-They have an outlook that does not fit comfortably within the predictable spectrum of needs most are accustomed to

-Important because they give us uncommon insights that allow us freedom to deviate from the common wisdom and push beyond obvious solutions

-Questions to ask yourself before selecting interview subjects

--How many people do I need to interview?

--Who do I recruit?

--How do I know who the target customer is?

--How do I recruit the people to interview?

-Conducting an empathy interview

-Prepare a question guide as a script

-According to d.School, In order to empathize, one is required to do the following

-Immerse: experience what users experience

-Observe: view users and their behaviors in the contexts of their lives

-Engage: interact with and interview user through schedules and "intercept" encounters

-Never push your thoughts on the interviewee

-Ask questions that trigger delightful emotion

-Opens doors to personal revelations that will prove useful to the design process

-Opens up a change for the interviewer to ask follow-up questions

-Ask "show me" questions that lets them tell a story

-Create a comfortable atmosphere

-Things to remember:

-Always have a beginner's mindset.

-Suspend your judgments. You're not there to judge. Keep an open mind. -Openness is a mindset that is required.

-Be fully present. Be truly there. Someone can tell if you'd rather be elsewhere. Show each interviewee they are the most interesting, person you have ever met.

-Silence all devices. Do not look at your texts or answer phone calls.

-Always bring a voice recorder to document the interview.

-Interview in pairs. One can ask questions whilst the other takes notes. You can take turns.

-Use a permission form for taking photographs.

-Use release documents for interviewee to sign.

-Also explain how the person's data and any data you collect will be used from the interview.

-Leave 30 minutes or so between each interview. This gives the interviewer some time to make additional notes and compile their thoughts while everything is still fresh in their mind.

Empathy interviews allow you to understand emotions, motivation and choices the user makes. These in turn allow you to become familiar with their needs and design to satisfy them

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How to conduct an empathy interview

-An empathy interview uses a human-centered approach to understand the feelings and experiences of others

-Should feel less like an interview and more like an open conversation with a friend

-The goal is to understand users by having an open conversation, not to confirm an idea or insight

-How to conduct an empathy interview

-Interview in pairs

--One person identifies areas to dig deeper into the conversation while the other takes detailed notes about the conversation including body language

-If can't do it in pairs, record the interview

-Pursue tangents

--Follow the conversation organically, let any conversation fueled by passion continue

-Don't try to steer it back to the same topic

-Use a beginner's mindset

-Never assume you know the answer

-Always ask why

--Participants won't typically tell you why they do or say things, so it's your job to ask

-Ask neutral questions

-Don't ask questions in a way that implies there is a correct answer

--It avoids bias and allows the participant to draw from their own experiences and thoughts

-Encourage storytelling

--Allows you to dig deeper by preventing generic responses

--Allows you to ask good follow up questions

-Observe body language

--Common non-verbal cues:

Crossed arms

Abnormal posture

Facial expressions (smiles, frowns, etc)

Tilted head

Moving closer

Eye contact

Fidgeting or adjusting in their chair

--Use non-verbal cues to drive the conversation and your next questions

-Embrace silence

--Let the participant break the silence

-Avoid binary questions

--Binary questions can be answered in one word

--While sometimes these types of questions are necessary, try to avoid them when possible

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when conducting an empathy interview

Keep an open mind, don't just get through the questions, don't ask leading questions, be inquisitive (why?), exploratory mindset, dig deeper and probe

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Design thinking principles

Herman Simon created this 1969

Mindset more than a process, mix of technical and creative/emotional

1. Focused on human values- putting the customer at the center of your thinking: who they are? What their needs are? What their wants are?, focus on empathy

2. Showing not telling- quickly translating your ideas into things that you can take out and show someone and experiment with to then bring back and iterate on, repeatedly and quickly create prototypes

3. Bias towards action- build innovate and learn by doing, talk to people, use sticky notes to ideate, need to collaborate with each other, talking and interacting with potential customers and each others

4. Learning mindset- embracing learning or a beginner's way of thinking, not trying to sell the idea you are trying to learn and iterate, being ok with failure

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Design thinking process steps

Empathize- understanding, observing, and inspiration, learn more about the people you are designing for, talk to the users, observe them, and immerse yourself in their world, use this in combination with secondary research

Define- make sense of the data you collected in the empathize phase, who are your target users and what are their pain points or challenges?

Ideate- think of creating solutions for each aspect of the problem, be creative and push boundaries

Prototype- prioritize your ideas, narrow down to one or 2, develop a low resolution prototype to show people

Prototype- prioritize your ideas, narrow down to one or two, develop a prototype to show people

--Low resolution prototyping: quickly turning ideas into something tangible that you can show to people

Test- identify the assumptions and hypotheses you are testing for, get feedback from people




--Is there a viable business model?

--Is there a unique value proposition?

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Design thinking in the pediatric MRI scan: Doug made an MRI machine and wanted to make the most cutting edge machine but didn't consider the perspective of the user (kids)

Empathize- how do we make pediatric MRI scans a better experience?, spent time observing and talking to kids, their parents, and the MRI machine workers, used why questions to elicit feelings and stories, some hospitals had to sedate the children to keep them still, children were terrified, parents were worried, the MRI machine could do far fewer scans each day

Define- What are the patterns and themes that emerged? What did we hear? Did members of the team hear the same thing or different things? How do we reconcile those differences?, analyzed and synthesized all that data and insights, created a design challenge statement, then POV, user (kids who need to undergo MRI scan) + need (kids just want to play and have fun) = insight (kids tend to voluntarily participate in things they perceive as fun and adventurous)

Ideate- brainstorming coming up with ideas, concept of turning the MRI into an adventure, underwater adventure

Prototype- quickly create, create something tangible that you can go back out and have users interact with, continue to think about your ideas and to test your assumptions and hypotheses quickly, projected an aquarium picture on an existing MRI machine

Test- what surprised you? What didn't you like? How would you change this? Not asking would you buy it. The team observed to validate or invalidate their assumptions, how would the kids react? Test was cheap and fast

Implement- kids at the center of the innovation, GE adventure series, prototype to MVP to product, saw results less sedation, more patient satisfaction

Iterate and Refine- customer at the center, after the first few rounds of low resolution prototypes they found some of their assumptions were not accurate, confirmed some things

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Design thinking explained

etting aside your own preconceptions is vital, Creative brainstorming is necessary for developing possible solutions, but many people don't do it particularly well, The first step in design thinking is to understand the problem you are trying to solve before searching for solutions (ex. Of food service for elderly in Denmark), immerse yourself in the problem, Hold nothing back during brainstorming sessions — except criticism, We explore potential solutions through modeling and prototyping. We design, we build, we test, and repeat, Your team will spend most of its time, its money, and its energy on implementation which involves detailed design, training, tooling, and ramping up. It is a huge amount of effort, so get it right before you expend that effort,", think big

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Who loses big in the great streaming wars?

The user- 1. Always make it easy to resume a binge., 2. But don't make it too hard to go back and re-watch when necessary., 3. Give the customer more control of the browsing process, and a layout that makes sense., 4. Make searches easy., problems for users: too many services with different content, bad user interface

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Define phase

set a clear idea of the problem you are trying to solve

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Empathy map

A collaborative tool that teams can use to gain a deeper insight into their customers

Help us build empathy with our end users - the people we are designing for

Empathy maps can:

-Remove bias from our designs and align the team on a single, shared understanding of the user

-Discover weaknesses in our research

-Uncover user needs that the user themselves may not even be aware of

-Understand what drives users' behaviors

-Guide us towards meaningful innovation

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Parts of an empathy map

1: user - who are the people or segment/group of people you are designing for?

2: see - what does the environment look like around them? What do they see others saying or doing? What are they watching or reading?

3: Think and feel - what emotions do you sense or are they articulating? What do you think they are thinking about? What are their motivations, goals, needs, desires? What does this tell you about their beliefs?

4: hear - what are they hearing from people around them that they interact with? What are they hearing second hand?

5: say and do - what are they actually saying and doing? What are actual statements that have been made or actions that you have observed?

6: pain - what are they running from? What do they want to avoid? What are their fears, frustrations or anxieties?

7: gain - what are they running to? What do they want to get? What are their wants, needs, hopes and dreams?

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Point of view

Step 1: define your user

-Define the type of person you are designing for - your user

Step 2: identify needs

-Select the most essential needs, which are the most important to fulfill

Step 3: Express key insights

-Work to express the key insights developed through the synthesis of your gathered information

More than simply defining the problem to work on, your point of view is your unique design vision that you crafted based on your discoveries during your empathy work. You should construct a narrowly-focused problem statement or POV as this will generate a greater quantity and higher quality solutions when you and your team start generating ideas during later Brainstorm.

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Design challenge statement

Get clear about the design challenge you are seeking to solve for

_____ is a challenge for ______ because ______.

Define the type of person you are designing for - your user. Select the most essential needs, which are the most important to fulfill. Work to express the insights developed through the synthesis of your gathered information. [User . . . (descriptive)] needs [Need . . . (verb)] because [Insight . . . (compelling)].

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How might we questions

-Launchpad for when you ideate

-Narrow enough to know where to start brainstorming but broad enough to explore wild ideas

A properly framed How Might We doesn't suggest a particular solution, but gives you the perfect frame for innovative thinking. "How" suggests that we do not yet have the answer. "Might" emphasises that our responses may only be possible solutions, not the only solution. "We" immediately brings in the element of a collaborative effort.

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Creativity is a process, not a post it

The "Imaginative Thinking NASA Test" successfully identified creative engineers and scientists for NASA

Dr.Land's research on creativity shows as we grow in age, creativity drastically decreases. (98% 5yr olds, 30% 10yr olds, 12% 15 yr olds, 2 % adults)

Children ask 125 questions per day while adults only ask 6

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Creativity's roadblock

Socialization process restrict creativity as we develop norms, judgements, evaluations, and beliefs, which gives us limitation

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Right vs left brain

-Convergent thinking (rational): where we hedge, criticize, refine, and combine ideas (conscious thoughts)

-Divergent thinking: (imaginative) where we imagine ideas. Often half-baked.

-The more schooling we receive, the more convergent instead of divergent thinking

-Creative thinking requires the interplay of both sides of the brains

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Day-to-day tasks limit our space for creativity

-Prefrontal cortex thinks rationally -- increases its use as we grow.

-Danger and stress shuts down creative juices in the brain

-When amygdala senses danger, it block prefrontal cortex to react swiftly - cause us to shut down or act conventionally (prevents us to do "out of the box"

-Stress, trauma, and our own self-criticism and censorship are all factors that can sabotage our creativity)

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How to be creative

-Creativity is an ongoing process not a one time event

-Let your mind wander

-Create a judgment-free zone

-Find the right environment (try unconventional places, get out of your comfort zone)

-Generate a lot of ideas: Great ideas come from iterating, collaboration, and building or combining ideas.

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-Definition: a method design teams use to generate ideas to solve clearly defined design problems. In controlled conditions and a free-thinking environment, teams approach a problem by such means as "How Might We" questions.

Ideation phase

-Free to use out-of-the-box and lateral thinking

-The more the better

-Judgment free atmosphere!

-Need to have a clear definition of the target problem

Eight house rules for facilitator

-Set a time limit - Depending on the problem's complexity, 15-60 minutes is normal.

-Begin with a target problem/brief - Members should approach this sharply defined question, plan or goal and stay on topic.

-Refrain from judgment/criticism - No-one should be negative (including via body language) about any idea.

-Encourage weird and wacky ideas - Further to the ban on killer phrases like "too expensive", keep the floodgates open so everyone feels free to blurt out ideas (provided they're on topic).

-Aim for quantity - Remember, "quantity breeds quality". The sifting-and-sorting process comes later.

-Build on others' ideas - It's a process of association where members expand on others' notions and reach new insights, allowing these ideas to trigger their own. Say "and"—rather than discourage with "but"—to get ideas closer to the problem.

-Stay visual - Diagrams and Post-Its help bring ideas to life and help others see things in different ways.

-Allow one conversation at a time - To arrive at concrete results, it's essential to keep on track this way and show respect for everyone's ideas.

-Avoid brain dumping (for individuals), and brainwriting and brainwalking (for group-and-individual mixes).

Harnessing synergy: we leverage our collective thinking towards a variety of potential solutions - hard to have boundless freedom

--maybe include warm-up activities

--team should stay fluid in the search for ways you might resolve an issue - not chase a "holy grail" solution someone has developed elsewhere. The idea is to mine idea "ore" and refine "golden" solutions from it later

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Design kit

Things that are important:

-the goal isn't a perfect idea, it's lots of ideas, collaboration, and openness to wild solution

-Do not talk about the reasons behind existing ideas but to come up with as many as possible

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Steps during brainstorming

-Defer judgement. You never know where a good idea is going to come from. The key is make everyone feel like they can say the idea on their mind and allow others to build on it.

-Encourage wild ideas. Wild ideas can often give rise to creative leaps. In thinking about ideas that are wacky or out there we tend to think about what we really want without the constraints of technology or materials.

-Build on the ideas of others. Being positive and building on the ideas of others take some skill. In conversation, we try to use "and" instead of "but."

-Stay focused on the topic. Try to keep the discussion on target, otherwise you can diverge beyond the scope of what you're trying to design for.

-One conversation at a time. Your team is far more likely to build on an idea and make a creative leap if everyone is paying full attention to whoever is sharing a new idea.

-Be visual. In live brainstorms we write down on Post-its and then put them on a wall. Nothing gets an idea across faster than drawing it. Doesn't matter if you're not Rembrandt!

-Go for quantity. Aim for as many new ideas as possible. In a good session, up to 100 ideas are generated in 60 minutes. Crank the ideas out quickly and build on the best ones.

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Purpose of prototyping

To prove or disprove your fundamental assumptions in the quickest, least expensive way possible.

-anything that a user can interact with - be it a wall of post-it notes, a gadget you put together, a role-playing activity, or even a storyboard (scenario maps) -- something user can experience even with alk through scenarios -- to find emotions and responses


-To ideate and problem-solve. Build to think.

-To communicate. If a picture is worth a thousand words, a prototype is worth a thousand pictures.

-To start a conversation. Your interactions with users are often richer when centered around a conversation piece. A prototype is an opportunity to have another, directed conversation with a user.

-To fail quickly and cheaply. Committing as few resources as possible to each idea means less time and money invested up front.

-To test possibilities. Staying low-res allows you to pursue many different ideas without committing to a direction too early on.

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Low-resolution prototypes - learn where to go next

Start building

Don't spend too long on one prototype

ID what you are testing

Build with the user in mind

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Types of prototype

Model: three-dimensional representation of your idea

Role play - act out the experience of your idea

Story - tell the story of your idea from the future (newspaper article, job description...)

Mock up- digital tools or websites with simple sketches of scenes on paper

Diagram - imagine going door to door and showing potential customers what your ideas are potential service is

Advertisement - create a fake advertisement that promotes the best parts of your idea

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Prototyping: the design process to pressure test ideas

-Business strategy often suggests determining a goal, or endpoint, and working backwards to develop an action plan to get there.

-Making your ideas tangible, even before they feel ready to be shared, is the fastest and most reliable way to gather feedback early on about what works and what doesn't.

Strategyzer frames

-First, the priority of prototyping is to fully understand the problem you wish to solve.

-Alex osterwalder's frame work

-Low in cost and fidelity (minimal detail and functionality)

-Signs to evolve into a higher fidelity prototype: people start giving feedback on small details

Difference with MVP: MVP is a later stage prototype and can be developed into great one day. But the prototype isn't good enough. - prototypes are tools to help you prove a concept and MVP's help you refine it.

Process for developing fail-proof ideas with prototyping:

-Determine what to prototype

--Prioritize which questions will provide the insight that's most critical to the success of your idea

--Make a list of all assumptions

--Start by testing hypotheses that have to do with the problems (pains), activities (jobs) or goals (gains) the potential customer faces.

-Make it real

--The more variations of prototypes you create, and the faster you iterate upon what you put into the hands of your users, the better.

--Use creativity to test complex questions

--As you get further into the process you can further refine and evolve your prototype to reflect the new information you gather in the field in Step #3.

-Get feedback

--be careful not to inadvertently set an expectation for users to tell you what you want to hear.

--Multiple alternatives also encourage good, honest feedback about your ideas. If you go in with only one prototype, it limits your options. With multiple prototypes, you can have a frank discussion about the relative strengths and weaknesses of each

-Iterate and repeat

--integrate that learning into the next iteration of your idea.

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