APWH Unit 5

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absolute monarchy

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122 Terms

1

absolute monarchy

a system in which the monarch theoretically holds all the powers of the government without any legal restraints on their actions

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2

Versailles

in the Kingdom of France, represented both the power of absolute monarchs and the large wealth they could put towards state building

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3

The Enlightenment

an intellectual movement that transformed the cultural landscape; an attempt to understand the natural world and human relationships through the power of reason and logic

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4

Salons

where highly educated private parties gathered to discus and debate the new philosophies; coffee houses were where less wealthy people exchanged ideas

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5

natural rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

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6

John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.

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7

Social Contract

the people of a country agree to grant a government great powers in exchange for protection of their natural rights; governments who did not follow this should be overthrown according to Locke

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8

Baron de Montesquieu

propose the implementation of political principles which could prevent a government from becoming corrupt or tyrannical

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9

Separation of Powers

government's powers would be divided into three branches

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10

legislative branch

make laws

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11

executive branch

enforce laws

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12

judicial branch

interpret the laws and settles disputes over them

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13

Deism

a monotheistic view of the world in which God created the world but does not intervene in his creation

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14

Great Awakenings

series of movements where Protestant Christianity shifted lowards a focus on individual repentence and rebirth, with less interest placed on the cooperation between church and state

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15

religious disestablishment

states abolished their connection to an official, state--funded church

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16

abolitionism

a movement in favor of abolishing slavery

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17

Quakers

a radical denomination of Protestantism, advocated forcefully that enslaving human beings was morally wrong

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18

Slavery Abolition Act

1833 abolition act passed in Great Britain where the government used compensated emancipation

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19

compensated emancipation

paying vast sums of money to forcibly purchase all slaves in the empire from their masters, setting them free

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20

American Civil War

war between the the Northern US and the Southern US due to tensions over slavery resulting in forced emancipation

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21

feminism

the idea that traditional patriarchal structures of society should be replaced by equality of men and women

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22

Mary Wollstonecraft

notable early feminist in Great Britain who pushed for greater female access to education

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23

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

written by Mary Wollstonecraft; applied Enlightenment principles to argue for expanded rights for women

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24

Olympe de Gouges

a French feminist; her ideas frightened the French Revolutionary government and it sentenced her to death

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25

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

written by Olympe de Gouges; responded to the revolutionary emphasis on the equality of all men by insisting that Enlightenment principles of Natural Rights also applied to females

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26

Seneca Falls Convention

a peaceful gathering for suffrage during 1848 in the US

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27

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

organized the Seneca Falls Convention

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28

nationalism

the belief that people-groups rightly belong to a nation-state

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29

nation-state

government possessing the right and responsibility to unite all people of its nation under its direct rule; created based on arbitrary principles that the people have in common

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30

stateless nation

people groups without a nation-state; they did not have a military force over a specific area and did not have set borders

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31

Causes of Political Revolutions

nationalism, enlightenment, socioeconomic inequality, imperialism

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32

Seven Years' War

a conflict between France and Great Britain over control of North America, ended in Britain winning but being greatly in debt

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33

American Revolution

the Americans seeking independence from Great Britain after the large amount of taxes that were being imposed on them due to Britain's large debt from the Seven Years' War

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34

United States of America

the independent country that resulted for the American Revolution

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35

American Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson wrote it that used Enlightenment language and ideas to establish the region why the broke off from Great Britain and how they would run their new country

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36

Federal Republic

a system of governance using the ideals of federalism adopted by the US and the Constitution

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37

Federalism

a system in which multiple sovereign states come together to form one federal government, ceding certain powers to the federal government whilst retaining others for themselves

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38

presidential system

a government system which uses a powerful single executive, elected separately from the legislature

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39

Simon Bolívar

a revolutionary in northern South America; known as "the Liberator" for his role in winning independence from Spain

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40

"Letter from Jamaica"

written by Simon Bolivar, outlined Latin America's reasons for seeking independence

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41

José de San Martín

a revolutionary in southern South America brought about the liberation of all of Spanish South America

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42

Gran Colombia

the unity of all of northern South America under one state; could not agree on whether to adopt federalism or not (Centralists vs Federalists)

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43

unitary state

a state with a centralized government

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44

Brazilian independence

a rival branch of the Portuguese royal family initially declared a separate Brazilian Empire from Portugal, but was ultimately deposed in favor of a republic in 1889

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45

Brazilian Empire

what the rivals to Portugal wanted but failed to create

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46

Characteristics of Independent Latin America

republics with presidential systems, abolition of slavery, conflict between Creoles and people of Native or African descent

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47

Toussaint L'Ouverture

a former French General who was born a slave who lead rebellions in Haiti

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48

Haitian Revolution

Haiti established an independent republic which horrified slaveholders

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49

Lola Rodríguez de Tió

feminist and nationalist writer in Puerto Rico who advocated for independence from Spain

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50

Bourgeoisie

a group which included merchants, business people, and well-to-do city dwellers

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51

Reasons for the French Revolution

resentment by the Bourgeoisie of the Social and economic privileges of the nobility and clergy, an economic crisis brought on by war debts from the colonial wars, inspiration from Enlightenment ideals

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52

"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"

issued by the french revolutionaries to present the ideals of the Enlightenment and how they wanted to reform the government into a constitutional monarchy

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53

Napoleonic Wars

a series of conflicts where the French attempted to forcibly dismantle the structures which had organised Europe; Napoleon was finally defeated when all of the surrounding powers of Europe fought him at once from all sides

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54

Congress of Vienna

European monarchs attempted to undo the Revolution by restoring a monarchy in France and adopting rigorously conservative measures to prevent further political changes

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55

German Empire

created after a series of wars following Prussian victory, but was not successful in containing only Germans and all of the German in the area

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56

Kingdom of Prussia

a medium-sized state with an elite military

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57

Austro-

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58

Hungarian Empire

a large but militarily weal empire

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59

Alsace-Lorraine

a part of Germany where the majority of the people spoke French

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60

Italy

followed a series of wars where Sardinia-Piedmont brought majority Italian speakers under the rule of one nation-state

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61

Balkan nationalism

war divided these nations

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62

Ottomanism

attempted to prevent its fragmentation into nation states; pan-national identity in which the millet system would be succeeded by equality among its constituent nations; this was largely unsuccessful

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63

Propaganda Movements

instigated by exiled Filipino revolutionaries championing the case of Filipino resistance to Spanish rule through extensive writings targeted at popular audiences

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64

Maori

the native people of the islands of New Zealand

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65

New Zealand Wars

Maori attempted to win independence from the British but were defeated, these wars cost the British a lot, so the British violently repressed the Maori people

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66

First Industrial Revolution

an economic revolution surrounding the production of finished goods

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67

Economic Changes

a shift away from the putting-out system to the factory system, a shift from production by hand to machine, the replacement of wood and animal power to steam and water power

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putting-out system

people produced goods from the home

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69

Second Industrial Revolution

saw industrialization spread beyond western Europe and the US

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70

"the West"

western Europe and the US

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71

Environmental Causes of the Industrial Revolution

political control of regions rich in deposits of iron, political control of regions rich in coal, increased agricultural productivity, fast flowing rivers

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Agricultural Revolution

new farming techniques used for sustainable farming

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73

Environmental Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

destruction of ecosystems, uncontrolled pollution, gradual warming of the global climate

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74

deforestation

mass cutting of trees

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75

strip-mining

mining which destroys hills and/or mountains

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76

Fossil Fuels Revolution

shift away from burning wood to burning coal to increase efficiency

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77

steam engines

humans boil water by burning coal to move machine parts; decreased importance of human physical strength

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78

factory system

use of machines instead of being human labor and skill intensive

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79

specialized labor

working machines in factories

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80

wages

payments for hourly work

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81

Chicago and Manchester

new factory cities in the US and Great Britain

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82

stock markets

businesses could receive investments from private citizens who would hold a share or "stock" in the company's profits

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83

limited-liability corporations

a type of government-chartered company which allows investors to hold shares without risking the loss of their property should the company fail

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84

railroad

machine-driven system of transporting goods in bulk overland, connected the interior of continents to teh coastline and enhanced the movement of people

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85

steamships

faster transit over water, lowering the cost of international exchange, and facilitating the mass immigration of Europeans to the Americas

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86

telegraph

enabled the sending of messages long distance instantaneously through wires enhancing both public and private communication and increasing the reach of the state

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87

Bessemer Process

for making cheap, affordable steel

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88

electricity

a powerful form of energy newly harnessed by humans and transmitted by wires

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89

internal combustion engine

enabled the creation of motorized vehicles

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90

petroleum (oil)

a fossil fuel burned to power combustion engines, lighting, and heating systems

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91

Meiji Restoration

the Meiji emperor modernized the Japanese military along European models, installing a western-style constitution with a parliament and prime minister governing on behalf of the emperor; this was forced on Japan by the US forcing them to open their ports and Japan realizing that they had fallen behind

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92

"Goodbye Asia"

written by Fukuzawa Yuichi to justify Japan's need to become western

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93

Muhammad Ali

led Egypt as a de facto independent area while still in the Ottoman Empire

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94

capitulations

economic practices that exempted European traders from duties and legal barriers preventing Ottoman merchants from competing equally with Europeans

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95

White Lotus Rebellion

a rebellion that the emperor was unable to put down fro ten years and revealed China's weakness to the Western powers

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96

Opium Wars

20,000 British soldiers defeated the 220,000 strong Qing army with ease

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97

unequal treaties

agreements made benefiting the western powers more than the Chinese; ceded port cities in China over the western powers and granted extraterritoriality to westerners

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98

Hong Kong

major port city in China

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99

extraterritoriality

exempted westerners from Chinese laws

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100

Boxer Rebellion

proved that the Chinese had e=become a kind of shared vassal state of the European powers

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