ANS 150: Auditions & Behaviors of Animals

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What are the auditions of Cattle?

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Biology

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1

What are the auditions of Cattle?

"mm", "mm(h)", "(m)neh"

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2

What is the "mm" audition?

low amplitude sound; usually used between a cow and calf

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3

What is the "mm(h)" audition?

a higher amplitude; given when a cow is frustrated (isolated, etc.)

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4

What is the "(m)neh" audition?

high amplitude; given when a cow is threatened or a calf is hungry

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5

What is the name of the social aggressive order for Cattle and why?

The "bunt" or "hook" order; after posturing takes place cattle will "bunt" heads or "hook" horns (submissive cow retreats)

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6

What posturing would describe a dominant cow?

Feet planted underneath their shoulder , head down, ears turned back with inner surface pointed down and back

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7

What posturing would describe a submissive cow?

Head down with ears turned back & inner surface pointed to the side (outward)

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8

What are the auditions of small ruminants?

Rumble, Bleat, Snort

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9

What is the rumble audition?

Low murmuring sound made by does/ewes to their young

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10

What is the bleat audition?

Sign of distress (separation, hunger, etc.)

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11

What is the snort audition (small ruminants)?

Sound of aggression

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12

What is the dominant posturing for small ruminants?

Stamping one's foot & twisting horns to show defensive aggression

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13

What is the submissive posturing for small ruminants?

a lowered head with a head shake

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14

What is gregariousness?

tendency to flock together (high in sheep, low in goats)

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15

How are peck orders enforced with Sheep?

Established with little energy Oldest Ewe is usually the dominant ewe Dominant animals push subordinate ones out of the way Typically don't let new animals join the flock

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16

How are peck orders enforced with Goats?

Strictly enforced Dominant animal will lower head and charge Subordinates will run away Challenges of dominance result in a "jousting match"

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17

What is the result of interspecies aggression between sheep & goats?

Sheep will always win because goats rear up to fight while sheep remain with their head lowered when they charge

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18

What equine auditions require a response?

neigh & nicker

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19

What equine auditions do not require a response?

Squeal, Snort, & Roar

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20

What is the squeal audition (equine)?

defensive greeting or given in response to pain

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21

What is the snort audition (equine)?

sharp, short one = alarm call repeated = frustration

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22

What is the roar audition?

a dominance call; given by the stallion and directed towards the mare

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23

What is the neigh audition?

greeting or separation call; important for herd cohesion

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24

What is the Nicker audition?

a care-giving or care-soliciting call

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25

What is the best indicator of a horses mental state?

Position of the ears

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26

What does a horse's ears pointed forward indicate?

interested and attentive

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27

What does a horse's ears pinned back against head indicate?

Sign of aggression

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28

What does a horse's ears rolled outward indicate?

Submissive

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29

What will a young submissive horse typically do when approaching a dominant horse?

Retract lips, exposing teeth; Also might click their teeth

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30

What is the flehmen response?

It is when horses roll their lip up so pheromones can reach chemoreceptors on the bone row nasal organ

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31

Why is olfaction important to horses?

Horses use smells for social & reproductive behaviors

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32

Which Swine auditions make up the twenty identified calls?

Grunt, Barks, Squeal

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33

What is the grunt audition?

Short duration, low pitched sound from back of throat

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34

What is the bark audition (swine)?

Very short duration, low pitched sound from mouth; usually from a startled pig

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35

What is the squeal audition (Swine)?

High pitched sound that signifies excitement (good or bad)

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36

What does an elevated & curled tail indicate (swine)?

In the presence of pleasant stimuli (interaction with animals, eating, breeding, etc.)

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37

What does a straight tail that is pressed against the body indicate (Swine)?

Distress (unless sleeping)

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38

When does a pigs tail twitch?

When excited

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39

When are peck orders in swine established?

When weight and size are similar; Behavior is stimulated when new animals or a new environment is introduced

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40

Why is posturing significant for cats & dogs?

It's used to convey moods and emotions

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41

What are the auditions for Dogs?

Bark, Whine, Growl, Howling

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42

What is the Bark audition (dogs)?

territorial call; tone & amplitude will alter to convey different things; trait has been selected for by humans

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43

What is the whine audition?

care-soliciting (signifies pain, fright, or mild frustration)

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44

What is the growl audition (dogs)?

aggressive or distance-increasing call

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45

What is the howling audition?

Not been deciphered well; Believed to be how dogs really communicate with each other; Believed most canids can distinguish between strange adult and pup howls

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46

What does neutral posturing look like for a dog?

tail & ears down, standing upright

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47

What does aroused/interested posturing look like for a dog?

tail & ears up, standing upright on toes or with a front leg raised

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48

What does play-soliciting posturing look like for a dog?

tail up & wagging slightly, ears erect, standing upright and moving or gesturing with front paws

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49

What does active greeting posturing look like for a dog?

tail wagging over a wide range, ears erect, more exaggerated motion with front paws

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50

What does aggressive posturing look like for a dog?

tail up, ears erect, weight on front feet, exposed teeth

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51

What does fear posturing look like for a dog?

tail tucked, ears back and down, weight on rear feet, exposed teeth

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52

What does submissive posturing look like for a dog?

tail tucked, ears back & turned down, crouched on all four legs or rolled over to expose their belly

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53

What factors contribute to destructiveness in dogs?

Breed, Boredom, Separation Anxiety, and Barrier Frustration

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54

What appears to be increasing the rate of destructiveness in dogs?

increased number of young owners decreased contact during the day between dogs and owners

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55

What are the destructive tendencies of cats?

Clawing, wool sucking, & plant eating

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56

Clawing Behavior

Related to territorial aggression; can be stimulated by the presence of novel cats, pets & people

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57

Wool Sucking Behavior

poorly understood phenomenon, believed to be related by being weaned too early, fasting increases this behavior while the presence of food decreases it

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58

Plant Eating Behavior

poorly understood, often easier to get cats to eat plants that aren't toxic

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59

What are the simple auditions of cats?

Murmur, Purr, Growl, Squeak, Shriek, Hiss, Spit

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60

What is the murmur audition?

soft noise when exhaling; requesting or greeting

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61

What is the purr audition?

soft, buzzlike sound; most commonly used in social situations

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62

What is the growl audition (cats)?

Harsh, low pitched; agonistic encounters

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63

What is the squeak audition (cats)?

high pitched, raspy sound; playing, greeting, anticipation of pleasant stimuli

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64

What is the Shriek audition (cats)?

loud, harsh, high pitched sound; pain or aggressive situations

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65

What is the Hiss audition?

agonistic sound produced when mouth is open and teeth are exposed; most often associated with defensive aggression

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66

What is the Spit audition?

Short, sound after or before a hiss; agonistic situations

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67

What is the Mew audition?

high pitched, medium amplitude sound that sounds like a long e; used for interactions between mother and kitten

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68

What is the Moan audition?

low frequency and long duration sound that sounds like an "o" or "u"; used when begging to be released or is used when the animal wants to do something but is restrained

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69

What is the Meow audition?

characteristic feline sound; usually used as a greeting

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70

When is a cat's tail high?

when greeting or investigating

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71

When is a cat's tail low and the tip is wagging?

when hunting

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72

What are postures of a cat that serve as a sign of aggression?

Walking on tip toes, head lowered, back arched, hair raised, & mouth open with teeth exposed

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73

What do small pupils on a cat signify?

aggression

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74

What do large pupils on a cat signify?

the animal is becoming more defensive (threatened)

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75

What is the Grooming behavior (rabbits)?

show of affection & also important for preventing external parasites

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76

What is the Bunny Buck behavior (rabbits)?

when they jump up in the air and kick their rear feet out (sign of happiness)

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77

What is the Circling behavior (rabbits)?

when they hop in circles around their owners (sign of happiness)

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78

What does low grunts and rhythmic grinding of teeth signify (rabbits)?

contentment

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79

What do screams signify (rabbits)?

pain

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80

What does nipping signify (rabbits)?

sometimes playful; sometimes a warning

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81

What does biting indicate (rabbits)?

anger

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82

What are common rabbit behaviors as pets?

Nibbling: rabbits will nibble on electrical cords, furniture, etc. Can be litter box trained Will establish peck orders & fight to the death

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83

How are hamsters sensitive to temperatures?

At temperatures below 45 degrees F, hamsters will hibernate; at temperatures above 80 degrees F, hamsters will enter a deep sleep called estivation

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84

What is a common hamster behavior?

Burrowing

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85

When will cause a rat to bite?

Bites seldomly occur unless injured

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86

What is a behavior exhibited by rats regularly?

Grooming

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87

How do mice maintain their social structure?

Rigidly

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88

Why must mice be housed with other mice?

Their high gregariousness

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89

What are common behaviors for Ferrets kept as pets?

Ferrets are unpredictable when it comes to behavior Only tolerate other pets/animals Can be litter box trained

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90

Why do lizards need to be provided with a place to hide?

Most are secretive

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91

What is a safety mechanism exhibited by lizards

Autotomy: if tail is trapped, it will break off & grow back

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92

How do snakes explore their environment?

Using their tongue to detect heat & scents

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93

What happens if a snake becomes too cold?

Feeding activity decreases

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94

What occurs if a snake does not need to feed?

It will likely not defend itself

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95

What are the behavioral mechanisms?

Instinct, Habituation, Conditioning, Trial and Error, Reasoning, and Imprinting

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96

What is the Instinct mechanism?

behaviors that are inherently present at birth; also known as reflexes; typically controlled by biological changes within the animal

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97

What is the imprinting mechanism?

poorly understood; where young animals bond to their caretakers (usually their mother); a suggestion that chemicals and or other signals are involved

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98

What is the habituation mechanism?

lack of response to a repeated stimulus; learned behavior

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99

What is the Conditioning mechanism?

Association between a behavioral response and a given stimulus, also known as reinforcement

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100

What is the Trial and Error mechanism?

trying various responses to a stimulus until a reward is received; initiated by animal; most common way behaviors are learned

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