Human A&P Semester Exam

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Anatomy

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147 Terms

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Anatomy

study of body structure

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Physiology

is the study of body part function

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homeostasis

The maintenance of a stable internal environment by the body is

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4

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism

Organization

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lateral

The ears are located __________ to the nose

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anterior/ventral ; posterior/dorsal

_____________ means towards the front of the body, and _______________ means towards back of the body

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distal; proximal

The fingers are ____________ to the elbow and the shoulder is _______________ to the elbow.

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medial; lateral

medial; lateral

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lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland

Which organs are located in the thoracic cavity?

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stomach, liver, gallbladder, intestines, kidneys, ovaries, rectum, bladder

Which organs are located in the abdominopelvic cavity?

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11

diaphragm

Which structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

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cuboidal, columnar, squamous

What the three basic shapes of epithelial cells (describe the s

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one

Simple epithelial tissues have _______________ layer(s) of cells.

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14

multiple

Stratified epithelial tissues have ___________________ layer(s) of cells.

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one (appears to be many)

How many layers of cells do pseudostratified epithelial tissues have?

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lining the esophagus; epidermis of the skin; mainly functions to protect

Where can you find stratified squamous epithelium and what is its function?

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falsely layered tissue found in the nasal cavity, resp. tract, and intestinal tract, main function is to move fluid

What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium, where is it located in the body, and what is its function?

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18

What is transitional epithelium, where is it located in the body, and what is its function?

Found in the urinary bladder; Design provides stretching and keeps urine from diffusing back into the internal cavity

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19

What are the types of connective tissue?

cartilage

adipose

bone

blood

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20

Which type of connective tissue is specialized to store fat?

adipose

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21

What are the three types of muscles tissue?

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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22

Which type(s) of muscle tissue is voluntary? Involuntary?

Voluntary: skeletal Involuntary: cardiac, smooth

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23

What are the functions of the skin?

protection, regulation, sensation, secretion

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If we say that an animal or person is a albino, what do we mean and what causes the condition?

person lacking melanocytes; genectics

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25

What is the upper layer of the skin called?

epidermis

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Epidermis vs. Dermis

epidermis is above the dermis; dermis contains all the accessory organs, as well as blood vessels

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27

How does the skin constantly renew itself?

Cells are pushed outward as new cells are formed and become keratinized as they die

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Why is the uppermost layer of the skin dead?

The old skin cells die as they are keratinized and new cells replace them.

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What system helps defend the body against infection and returns leaked fluid to the blood stream

Lymphatic system

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30

The external covering of the body that protects the underlying tissues from injury?

integumentary system

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31

Breaks down food into nutrients that the body can absorb and use.

digestive system

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Works to obtain oxygen from the atmosphere and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

Respiratory system

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Flushes nitrogen waste from the body in the urine.

Urinary system

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Contract to provide movement (walking, blinking, chewing)

Muscular system

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The glands of this system secrete hormones; the body's slow

acting control center.

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Produces offspring.

Reproductive system

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The body's fast

acting control center; sends messages that controls muscles and glands

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Transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body in the blood stream.

Circulatory system

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Consists of the stomach, intestines, and liver.

Digestive system

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Consists of brain and spinal chord.

Nervous system

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Consists of heart and blood vessels

Circulatory system

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Consists of trachea and lungs

Respiratory system

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Consists of lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils

Lymphatic system

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Consists of skin, hair, and nails

Integumentary system

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Consists of kidneys, ureters, and bladder

Urinary system

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Consists of thyroid gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, and adrenal glands

Endocrine system

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Consists of bones, cartilage, and joints

Skeletal system

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Sagittal plane

divides body into left and right

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Frontal plane

Divides the body into front and back portions.

front=anterior

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divides the body into top and bottom parts

Transverse plane

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a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus

a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus

suppress

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positive feedback

Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.

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53

Bladder tissue

transitional epithelium

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Tendon and Ligament tissue

Dense connective

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3 Fibers in Connective Tissue

Collagen,Reticular,Elastic

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avascular tissue

cartilage ; NOT supplied by blood vessels

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Sebum

oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands

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58

How does the skin regulate body temperature?

Blood vessels in the skin release or hold in heat, depending upon what the body needs at the time;sweat

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Serous membrane

thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist

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Sweat gland

The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.

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erector pili muscle

muscles that cause hair to stand up when it contracts;produce heat

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sebaceous glands

oil glands in the skin

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melanin

A pigment that gives the skin its color

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keratin

A fiber protein that is the principal component of hair, skin, and nails

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osteoblasts and osteoclasts

The remodeling of bone

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66

most joints

synovial

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Flexion

Decreases the angle of a joint

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pronation

turning the palm downward

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Protraction

Moving a part forward

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Circumduction

circular movement of a limb at the far end

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Retraction

moving a part backward

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inversion

Turning the sole of the foot inward

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Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body

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Adduction

Movement toward the midline of the body

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supination

movement that turns the palm up

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Aponeurosis

strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone;substitute tendon

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Normal state of balanced muscle tension

muscle tone

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muscle hypertrophy

muscle enlargement from overuse

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muscular atrophy

muscles become small and weak due to disuse

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origin

attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction

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Insertion

attachment to movable bone

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muscle organization

myofilaments(myosin and actin) → myofibril → muscle fiber (cell) → fascicle → muscle cells

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deltoid

shoulder

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acromial

point of the shoulder

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antebrachial

forearm

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antecubital

space in front of the elbow

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axillary

armpit

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brachial

upper arm

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buccal

cheek

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90

abdominal

abdomen

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cranial

skull

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carpal

wrist

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cervical

neck

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coxal

Outer hip

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crural

shin (front)

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digital

finger or toe

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dorsal (Posterior)

back

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femoral

thigh

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fibular

entire lower leg

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gluteal

buttocks

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