General Anatomy Lecture

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Anatomy is derived from what Greek words? Give its definition

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1

Anatomy is derived from what Greek words? Give its definition

Ana means a part; tome means cutting

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2

What is the study of shapes and structures of the human body with emphasis on the relationships of different parts?

Human Anatomy

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3

Study on the parts of the body seen by the naked eye

Gross/Macroscopic Anatomy

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Study of the minute structures that can only be seen with the aid of lenses

Microscopic anatomy/Histology

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Studies the structural changes of an individual from fertilization to maturity

Developmental anataomy

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Study of the nervous system

Neuroanatomy

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Study of the relationships of all structures found in a particular region of the body

Regional/Topographical Anatomy

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8

What are the different regions of the body?

Head region; neck region; trunk/torso; upper extremity; lower extremity

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Study of the parts of the body with the same structure and related functions

Systemic Anatomy

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10

Delineating on the external surface of the body, the relative position of the organs and structures found inside the body

Surface anatomy

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11

Includes the use of plain x-ray, as well x-rays taken through the introduction of various dyes into the blood stream or digested

Radiographic anatomy

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Structures that are less dense and permit the x-ray beam to pass through them

Radiolucent

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Structures that are dense and resist the passage of x-rays

Radiopaque

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A radiographic contrast agent that is used to help diagnose or find problems in the esophagus, stomach, and bowels

Barium liquid

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Application of anatomical knowledge to diagnosis and treatment

Applied anatomy

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16

What are the materials used in studying anatomy?

Books, charts, drawing, atlases, human models/cadavers, living body

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17

Describe anatomic position

Body is standing erect

Facing the observer

Face and eyes are directed forward

Arms hanging at side

Palms are facing forward with thumb pointing laterally

Heels are together and feet flat on the floor

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Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left equal sides

Median/Sagittal plane

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Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves

Frontal/Coronal plane

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Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior halves

Transverse plane

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Proximal

Nearer the point of origin

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Distal

Farther from the point of origin

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Internal

Closer to the central axis

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External

Farther from the central axis

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Superficial

Near the surface

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Deep

Away from the surface

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Somatic/Parietal

Walls of a cavity

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Visceral

Organs within a cavity

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29

What are the cavities in the ventral cavity?

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavity

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30

Houses the lungs

Pleural cavity

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Houses the heart

Pericardial cavity

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Houses the digestive system

Abdominal cavity

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Houses the reproductive system

Pelvic cavity

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34

What are the cavities dorsally?

Cranial and spinal cavity

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35

Houses the brain

Cranial cavity

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Houses the spinal cord

Spinal cavity

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37

What are the other cavities found in the body?

Oral, nasal, orbital cavity

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38

Fundamental unit of all living things

Cell

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Collection of cells that have similar functions

Tissue

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It covers the surface of the body and lines the various cavities, ducts, and vessels

Epithelial tissue

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Derived from the mesoderm and functions for support, attachment of other tissues, and has a specialized function

Connective tissue

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It is composed of specialized cells that are capable of contraction

Muscular tissue

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Three types of muscular tissue, then differentiate

Skeletal - moves the skeleton

Cardiac - propel blood

Smooth - aid in digestion

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Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that transmit messages throughout the body

Nervous tissue

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Group of fundamental tissues bound together to perform a given function

Organ

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Group of organs that are similar in origin and structure that have interconnected functions

Organ System

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47

Two components of the integumentary system

Cutaneous membrane

Accessory structures

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48

Largest organ in the body that covers the entire external surface

Cutaneous membrane

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49

What are the other parts of the body that is covered with skin?

External auditory meatus

Lateral aspect of the tympanic membrane

Vestibule of the nose

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50

Skin is continuous with the mucosa of the orifices of

Alimentary tract

Respiratory tract

Urogenital tract

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Skin receptor that is for touch sensation

Meissner

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Skin receptor that is for pressure

Pacinian corpuscle

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Skin receptor that is for heat or warmth sensation

Ruffinis

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Skin receptor that is for cold sensation

Krauss end bulb

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Skin receptor that is for pain and found in a tooth pulp

Free nerve ending

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Layers of the skin

Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis

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Consists mainly of continuously self-replicating stratified keratinized squamous epithelium

Epidermis

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What is the principal cell found in epidermis?

Keratinocytes

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State the layers of epidermis from superficial to deep

Stratum corneum - stratum lucidum - stratum granulosum - stratum spinosum - stratum basale

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Stratum germinativum is the lowermost layer. Keratohyaline granules are found in the stratum germinativum.

The first statement is true; the second statement is false.

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Separates the epidermis from the loose connective tissue of the adjacent dermis

Basement membrane

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Cytoplasmic extensions found in the stratum spinosum that bound cells together

Stratum spinosum

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Clear layer that is only found in thickened skin

Stratum lucidum

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Fibrous protein that is extremely strong, light, flexible, durable, and water resistant

Keratin

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Thick skins are found in what part of the body

Palms of the hands; soles of the feet

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Skin color is caused by the interaction between

Pigment composition and concentration and dermal blood supply

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An orange-yellow pigment that accumulates inside epidermal cells

Carotene

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Brown, yellow-brown, or black pigment that is produced by melanocytes and is used to prevent skin damage by absorbing UV radiation

Melanin

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Other term for corium

Dermis

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Makes up approximately 90% of the thickness that is responsible for the tensile strength

Dermis

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Thin arrangement of collagen fibers that supply nutrients to selected layers of epidermis

Papillary layer

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Nipple-like extensions that extends towards the epidermis

Dermal Papillae

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Thick collagen of fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface

Reticular layer

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Reticular layer is made of thick collagen fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface; it is the layer that supply nutrients to the selected layers of epidermis.

First statement is true; second statement is false.

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Provides support and attachment for the dermis and allows flexibility and independent movement

Hypodermis

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Part of the hair that projects above the skin surface

Shaft

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Covers the root of hair and is composed of cell layers that are found in epidermis

Hair follicle

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If the hair follicle is curly, then shaft is straight. If hair follicle is straight, then shaft is curly.

True

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Part of the hair that contains pigments

Inner cortex

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80

Discharge waxy secretions into the hair follicle that is found all throughout the body except palms and soles

Sebaceous glands

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81

Other term for earwax

Cerumen

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82

Differentiate the two sweat glands

Apocrine gland - discharge a sticky, cloud secretion that is located among armpits, nipples, and genital areas

Merocrine/Eccrine gland - leads directly to the superficial layer of epidermis found on the entire surface

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Modified sweat glands that produces milk

Mammary glands

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84

Thick first milk that breasts produce during and awhile after birth

Colostrum

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85

Germinal matrix is the nail root; sterile matrix is the nail bed

Both statements are correct

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86

Color of the nail bed = color of nail plate

True

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The cuticle of the nail that provides waterproof barrier

Eponychium

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Skin that overlies the nail plate on its sides and is the site of hangnails, ingrown nails, and an infection called paronychia

Perionychium

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Junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip that provides waterproof barrier

Hyponychium

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90

Important in determining the extent of damage in cases of burns

Rule of Nine

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91

Give the different percentages for the rule of nine

Head and neck 9%

Anterior trunk 18%

Posterior trunk 18%

Upper extremity 18%

Lower extremity 36%

Perineum 1%

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92

What is the percentage if the burn includes one arm then one leg?

27%

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What is the percentage if the burn includes the whole lower extremity and the perineum?

37%

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What is the percentage if the burn includes the head and neck + half of the anterior trunk?

18%

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What is the percentage if the burn includes the whole posterior trunk, perineum, and the lower extremity?

55%

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96

Comprises 2/3 of the bone composition and gives it hardness and rigidity

Bone minerals

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97

Blood cell production occurs in what part of the bone?

Red bone marrow in the spongy bone

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98

What is the function of yellow bone marrow?

Storage of fat

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99

Other term for spongy bone

Trabecular or cancellous bone

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The ivory surface of mature bones that forms the bone structure just beneath the periosteum

Compact/dense bones

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