Chem Semester Test

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Mole

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136 Terms

1

Mole

  • SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance.

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2

Avogadro’s Number

6.02x10^23

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3

molar mass

  • mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.

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4

percent composition

  • percent by mass of each element in the compound.

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5

empirical formula

smallest whole-number mole ratio of the elements.

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6

molecular formula

specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule or formula unit of the substance.

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7

hydrate

  • a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms.

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8

stoichiometry

the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and the amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction.

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9

mole ratio

a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two of the substances in a balanced chemical equation.

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10

limiting reactant

  • limits the extent of the reaction and thereby determines the amount of product formed.

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11

excess reactants

Reactants left over when a reaction stops

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12

theoretical yield

represents the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant.

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13

actual yield

  • the amount of product produced when the chemical reaction is carried out in an experiment.

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14

percent yield

  • the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent.

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15

kinetic-molecular theory

describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion.

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16

elastic collision

one in which no kinetic energy is lost.

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17

temperature

is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.

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18

diffusion

is the movement of one material through another.

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19

Graham’s Law of Effusion

states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.

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20

pressure

defined as force per unit area.

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21

Barometer

instruments used to measure atmospheric air pressure.

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22

pascal

is equal to a force of one Newton per square meter or N/m2.

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23

atmosphere

is equal to 760 mm Hg or 101.3 kilopascals.

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24

dalton’s law of partial pressures

states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases of the mixture.

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25

dispersion forces

weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in electron clouds.

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26

dipole-dipole forces

are attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules.

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27

hydrogen bond

are special dipole-dipole attractions that occur between molecules containing a hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone electron pair.

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28

viscosity

measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow and is determined by the type of intermolecular forces, size and shape of particles, and temperature.

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29

surface tension

the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount.

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30

surfactant

compounds that lower the surface tension of water.

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31

crystalline solid

a solid with atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in an orderly, geometric structure.

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32

unit cell

the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal.

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33

allotrope

an element that exists in different forms at the same state—solid, liquid, or gas.

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34

amorphous solid

one in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern.

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35

melting point

the temperature at which the forces holding the crystal lattice together are broken, and the crystalline solid becomes a liquid.

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36

vaporization

the process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor.

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37

evaporation

vaporization that occurs only at the surface of a liquid.

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38

vapor pressure

the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature

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39

boiling point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external or atmospheric pressure

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40

freezing point

the temperature at which

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41

condensation

The process by which a gas or a vapor becomes a liquid

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42

deposition

the process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid.

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43

phase diagram

a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows in which phase a substance exists under different conditions of temperature and pressure.

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44

triple point

the point on a phase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure at which all three phases of a substance can coexist.

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45

boyles law

  • states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure.

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46

absolute zero

  • zero on the Kelvin scale.

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47

charle’s law

states that the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature at constant pressure.

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48

gay lussac’s law

  • states that the pressure of a fixed amount of gas varies directly with the Kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant.

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49

combined gas law

  • states the relationship among pressure, temperature, and volume of a fixed amount of gas.

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50

avogadro’s principal

states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.

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51

molar volume

  • the volume 1 mol occupies at 0.00°C and 1.00 atm of pressure.

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52

standard temperature and pressure (STP)

.00°C and 1.00 atm

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53

ideal gas law

  • represented by R and is 0.0821 L•atm/mol•K when pressure is in atmospheres.

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54

ideal gas constant

  • describes the physical behavior of an ideal gas in terms of the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas present.

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55

suspension

  • mixtures containing particles that settle out if left undisturbed. Suspensions can also be separated by filtering.

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56

colloids

  • heterogeneous mixtures of intermediate-sized particles (1 nm-1000 nm) that do not settle out, nor can they be filtered apart.

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57

brownian motion

  • the jerky, random movements of particles in a liquid colloid, from the results of particle collisions.

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58

tyndall effect

  • the scattering of light by dispersed colloid particles.

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59

soluble

A substance that dissolves in a solvent

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60

miscible

Two liquids that are soluble in each other in any proportion

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61

insoluble

A substance that does not dissolve in a solvent

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62

inmiscible

Two liquids that can be mixed but separate shortly after

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63

concentration

  • a solution is a measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution.

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64

molarity

  • the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.

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65

molality

  • the ratio of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent.

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66

mole fraction

  • the process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution.

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67

solvation

  • the process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution.

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68

heat of solution

The overall energy change that occurs during solution formation

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69

unsaturated solution

  • solutions that contain less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution.

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70

saturated solution

  • contain the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solute at a specific temperature and pressure.

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71

supersaturated solution

  • contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature.

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72

henrys law

  • states that at a given temperature, the solubility (S) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (P).

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73

colligative property

  • are physical properties of solutions that are affected by the number of particles but not by the identity of dissolved solute particles.

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74

vapor pressure lowering

  • depends on the number of solute particles in solution. It is a colligative property of solutions.

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75

boiling point elevation

The temperature difference between a solution’s boiling point and a pure solvent's boiling point

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76

freezing point depression

  • , is the difference in temperature between its freezing point and the freezing point of the pure solvent.

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77

osmosis

 the diffusion of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane.

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78

osmotic pressure

  • the amount of additional pressure caused by water molecules that move into the concentrated solution.

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79

energy

the ability to do work or produce heat.

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80

law of conservation of energy

states that in any chemical reaction or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed.

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81

chemical potential energy

energy stored in a substance because of its composition.

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82

heat

energy that is in the process of flowing from a warmer object to a cooler object.

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83

calorie

defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water by one degree Celsius (1°C).

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84

joul

the SI unit of heat and energy.

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85

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of that substance by one degree Celsius.

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86

acidic solution

  • contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.

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87

basic solution

  • contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.

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88

Arrhenius model

  • An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution.

  • A base is a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in solution.

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89

Bronsted-lowery model

  • states that an acid is a hydrogen ion donor, and a base is a hydrogen ion acceptor.

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90

conjugate acid

  • the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion.

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91

conjugate base

  • the species produced when an acid donates a hydrogen ion.

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92

conjugate acid-base pair

  • consists of two substances related to each other by donating and accepting a single hydrogen ion.

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93

amphoteric

can react with acids and bases

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94

lewis model

  • a Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor, and a Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.

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95

strong acid

Acids that ionize completely

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96

weak acid

Acids that ionize only partially in dilute aqueous solutions

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97

acid-ionization constant

  • is the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a weak acid.

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98

strong base

A base that dissociates completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions

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99

weak base

  • ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution.

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100

base ionization constant

  • is the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base.

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