Bio 201 Exam 2

studied byStudied by 7 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

plants are in nested clades

1 / 274

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

275 Terms

1

plants are in nested clades

a set of organisms that share a common ancestor

New cards
2

plantae =

red algae and green plants

have plastid derived from primary endosymbiosis

New cards
3

green plants=

green algae and land plants

have modified plastid, a chloroplast

New cards
4

land plants

have adaptations for living on land - cuticle, pores or stomata

cuticle - waterproofing

must have gas exchange

pores in upper surface of thallus probably are the earliest structure for gas exchange

true stomata originate later, perhaps more than once

all exhibit alternation of generations

New cards
5

Embryophytes

land plants, multicellular embryo, protect embryo w sterile tissue and retained on mother plant

New cards
6

alternation of generations

sporic meiosis

alternate btwn haploid and diploid generations

meiosis = spores

mitosis = gametes

happens for land plants and some green algae

New cards
7

zygote

first cell of the sporophyte (2n) phases

New cards
8

sporophyte

diploid generation that produces spores

New cards
9

spore

haploid reproductive cell that can grow into an adult without the fusion of another cell - wall of sporopollenin

produced by meiosis

New cards
10

gametophyte

haploid generation that produces gametes

New cards
11

gamete

haploid reproductive cell

fuses together to form a zygote

produced by mitosis

New cards
12

syngamy

fusion of gametes to form a zygote

New cards
13

Bryophytes

non-vascular land plants

hornworts, mosses, liverworts

sporophytes is attached to, and is dependent on the gametophyte

embryo is retained by the gametophyte

New cards
14

vascular plants

have specialized conducting tissue

vascular tissue - xylem and phloem

support - increased height above ground

distribution of water and nutrients

New cards
15

Seed-free Vascular Plants

ferns and lycophytes

reproduce via spores - not seeds or pollen

have independent gametophytes and sporophytes

New cards
16

Seeded Plants

gymnosperms and angiosperms

have pollen and seeds

gametophytes are short lived and the female is retained on the sporophytes in the seed

New cards
17

gymnosperms

relatively small number of species but very diverse

ginkgo, cycads, gnetales, conifers

New cards
18

ginkgo

up to 80ft tall, deciduous w yellow foliage

temperate, resistant to pollution so common street tree

fan shaped leaves

New cards
19

cynads

first fossil evidence for 280mya

most common - cycas, zamia, macrozamia

restricted to tropical and warm temperate regions

New cards
20

gnetales

ephedra - 40 species

gnetum - 30 species

welwitschia - 1

deser plant with two leaves that continue to grow and split

New cards
21

conifers

sporophytes - tall,wide trees or shrubs, none herbaceous

monopodial growth, most evergreen, few deciduous

male gametophyte = pollen grain

female gametophyte = inside the ovule - becomes the seed

are the largest, the oldest, and the tallest living organisms

New cards
22

angiosperms - monocots -

cotyledons - 1

vascular tissue - scattered through stem

veins - parallel veins in leaves, bundles of vasc tissue

flowers -petals in multiples of 3

New cards
23

angiosperms - eudicots -

cotyledons - 2

vascular tissue -circular arrangement through stem

veins - branching veins in leaves

flowers -petals in multiples of 4 or 5

New cards
24

membranes - lipid bilayers

from when lipid molecules are aligned in paired sheets

hydrophilic heads - interact w water

hydrophobic tails - interact w one another

New cards
25

selective permeability

small, uncharged molecules cross membranes easily

ions, large molecules diffuse slow or not at all

assisted by membrane proteins

New cards
26

phospholipids

move within the membranes

in constant lateral motion, rarely flip to the other side of the bilayer

New cards
27

permeability’s relation to fluidity

higher temperatures increase fluidity

New cards
28

diffusion

spontaneous movement of molecules and ions

solutes move randomly in all direction

New cards
29

solute

dissolved substances

New cards
30

passive

no input of energyc

New cards
31

concentration gradient

difference in solute concentrations across the space

net movement away from regions of high concentration of the solute

occurs within fluids, gasses, and across membranes

New cards
32

equilibrium

molecules randomly distributed throughout the solutes

but the movement of the solute never stops

can occur during diffusion

New cards
33

Rate of Diffusion
F = kA ((∆c) / d)

F = rate of diffusion
k = diffusion constant (depends on solute, membrane, temperature)
A = surface area for diffusion
∆c = change in concentration
d = distance for diffusion (e.g., membrane thickness)d

New cards
34

diffusion w charged particles

charged particles rarely cross a phospholipid membrane on their own

must take into account charge and concentration

concentration and electrical gradient

New cards
35

electrochemical gradient

diffusion of charged particles depending on combo of concentration and electrical gradient

New cards
36

electrochemical equilibrium

combo of concentration and electrical gradient are balanced

New cards
37

consequence of size and shape - getting bigger

increased distance between surface and center

decreases surface area to volume ratio

increased diffusion distance - substances reach center at a lower rate

New cards
38

decreased surface area to volume ratio means

if surface area is smaller in relation to the volume then there is less surface through which diffusion can occur

decreasing SA:V

solution - become long and thin or flat to offset effects of increased size

New cards
39

vacuole

reduce internal volume

in plant cells they reduce the volume of the protoplast

New cards
40

osmosis

special diffusion case w water

semi-permeable membrane

only unbound water can cross the membrane

free water moves from regions of low solute concentration to high concentration - this changes volume and solute concentration

low concentration of solute = high conc of free water

high conc of solute = low conc of free water

New cards
41

semi-permeable membrane

allows water to cross the membrane but doesn’t let most or all solutes cross

New cards
42

polar

molecule is bent, carries a partial negative charge on one end and partial positive on the other

New cards
43

hypertonic

water flows out of the vesicle - shrinks

New cards
44

hypotonic

net flow of water into the vesicle, swell or burst

New cards
45

isotonic

no change

New cards
46

passive transport

when substances - ions or molecule - move across the plasma membrane in absence of an outside energy source

occurs along electrochemical gradient - doesn’t require energy expenditure

channel proteins are selective

New cards
47

carrier proteins

undergo a change in shape to carry a molecule

conformational change

New cards
48

selective

each protein only permits a particular type of ion or molecule to pass through

forming a pore to allow movement through the membrane

New cards
49

aquaporin

allow water to move across membrane but exclude other molecules and ions

New cards
50

gated channels

open in response to a signal

ex - voltage gated K+ channel

New cards
51

active transport

cells can move molecules in a directed manner or against the electrochemical gradient

requires energy investment

uses pumps

New cards
52

secondary active transport

gradient is used to move a molecule or ion of interest

these pumps move material against their concentration gradients and establish different electrochemical gradients

gradients power movement of another molecule against its gradient - atp not directly used to power, electrochemical gradients power

cotransport

New cards
53

pump

membrane protein that provides active transport of molecules across the membrane

New cards
54

proton pump H+ ATPase

uses atp to move protons H+

often important in change to pH and creating electrochemical gradient

New cards
55

sodium-potassium pump - Na+/K+ - ATPase/K+-ATPase)

uses atp

transport Na+ and K+ against their concentration gradient

New cards
56

cotransporters - symporter

transport solutes against their concentration gradient using energy released by the transport of another molecule moving in the same direction along its concentration gradient

New cards
57

cotransporter - antiporter

transport solutes against their concentration gradient using energy released by the transport of another molecule moving in the opposite direction along its concentration gradient

New cards
58

tree of life 3 domains or 2?

  1. bacteria 2.archaea 3.eukaryotes

or

  1. bacteria 2.archaea and eukaryotes

New cards
59

eukaryotes

  1. cells tend to be larger than bact + arch with more organelles and more extensive cytoskeleton

  2. have nuclear envelop - membrane barrier separating nucleus from cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells

  3. multicellularity has evolved many times - rare in b + a

    1. reproduce asexually via mitosis or sexually via meiosis

New cards
60

protists

nott monophyletic but paraphyletic

all eukaryotes except land plants, fungi, and animals

eukaryotes lineage split bya and lots of divergence

no synapomorphies

protists just 10% of species but super abundant

New cards
61

paraphyletic

a group containing a common ancestor and some of the descendants

New cards
62

crop diseases

irish potato famine caused by protist Phytophthora infestans - water mold

New cards
63

plankton

diatoms and other small organisms that drift in the open ocean or lakes

form bottom of food chain - nutritional relationship among organisms

New cards
64

primary producers

species that produce chemical energy by photosynthesis

New cards
65

photosynthesis

conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy - carbohydrates - used by organisms

energy is stored in tissues as starch, sugar, and cellulose - wood, coal, gas, oil

stored energy can be released by burning or metabolism

source of oxygen in the atmosphere

New cards
66

photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2

light energy is used to reduce carbon, removes hydrogen from water and adds it to carbon

New cards
67

carbon

essential element of all life forms

New cards
68

carbon sinks

long - lived carbon repository from marine protists

New cards
69

sedimentary rocks

from protist shells made of calcium carbonatep

New cards
70

petroleum

accumulation of dead bacteria, archaea, and protists at the bottom of the ocean

New cards
71

respiration

takes sugars and metabolizes them for energy

carried out by all living organisms

New cards
72

mitochondria

all eukaryotes have them or genes normally found in mito

organelle that generates ATP using pyruvate as the electron donor and oxygen as the ultimate electron receptior

semi - autonomous

New cards
73

semi-autonomous

organelle replicates via fission, have own ribosomes and manufacture some of own proteins, have own genome - arranged as circular molecular as in bacteria, double membrane, similar in size to proteobacteria

New cards
74

ATP stands for

adenosine triphosphate

New cards
75
<p>theory of endosymbiosis</p>

theory of endosymbiosis

mitochondria originated when a bacterial cell was taken up by a host cell

Lynn Marguis finally accepted in 1970

most profound evidence - orgin of the mitochondria is the close relationship between the mitochondrial genome and bacterial genomes - used lateral gene transfer

New cards
76

endo

inside

New cards
77

sym

together

New cards
78

bio

living

New cards
79

plastid

also hypothesized to have originated by endosymbiosis

New cards
80

protist - multicellularity

arose independently in many different lineages

allows specialization

not all cells can express the same genes so it allows for an organisms body to built in many ways

New cards
81

slime molds

cells can live independently part of the time but also make up a cohesive multicellular reproductive structure

New cards
82

protists structures provide

support and protection

foraminiferans - make up the white cliffs of dover

New cards
83

protists obtaining food

can be autotrophic or heterotrophic

ingestive feeding, phagocytosis, absorptive feeding, photosynthesis

New cards
84

autotrophic protists

can synthesize their own complex organic compounds from inorganic sources

New cards
85

heterotrophic

must digest organic compounds for nutrients - including parasites

New cards
86

ingestive feeding

eating live or dead organisms or organic debris

New cards
87

phagocytosis

engulf food

novel method for securing nutrients take in food much larger than single molecules

New cards
88

absorptive feeding

nutrients are taken up directly from the environment

usually cross the plasma membrane using transport proteins

can be parasitic or decomposers

New cards
89

protist - mobility

many move actively to find food

amoeboid motion, flagella, cilia

New cards
90

amoeboid motion

pseudopodia streams forward and rest of the cell follows

New cards
91

flagella

a long cellular projection that undulates - in eukaryotes to push a cell through and aqueous environment

New cards
92

dinoflagellates

have 2 flagella

create red tides - huge population growth = blooms

fish, bird, turtle, manatee, and dolphin death

neurotoxic shellfish poisoning - harm people who eat shellfish

also toxin in aerosois - breath it in

New cards
93

opisthokonta

have single flagellum

New cards
94

cilia

short, filamentous projections that move the cell or circulate fluids

New cards
95

life cycle

sequence of events that occur as an individual grows, matures, and reproduces

New cards
96

asexual

any mechanism of producing offspring that doesn’t involve the production of and fusion of gametes

based on mitosis - in eukaryotes

chromosomes in the daughter cell are identical to chromosomes in the parental cell

New cards
97

sexual

the production of offspring through the production and fusion of gametes

requires meiosis - reduced the number of chromosome sets

offspring have chromosome complements different than both parents

New cards
98

life cycles affects

relative timing of mitosis and meiosis affects the overall lifecycle

mitosis facilitates growth of a multicellular body

meiosis and syngamy change chromosome numbers

New cards
99

syngamy

union of gametes

fertilization is a type of syngamy - union of a flagellate sperm and a non-motile egg

New cards
100

haploid

1 set of chromosomes

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10285 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(44)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 330 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard119 terms
studied byStudied by 225 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard117 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.4 Stars(9)