FNAR Exam #2

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St. Peter’s Basilica & Piazza

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St. Peter’s Basilica & Piazza

Artists: Michelangelo, Maderno, & Bernini Location: Vatican, Rome, Italy Features: Porticos / Walkway of motherly arms Period: Baroque

<p>Artists: Michelangelo, Maderno, &amp; Bernini Location: Vatican, Rome, Italy Features: Porticos / Walkway of motherly arms Period: Baroque</p>
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Saint Teresa of Ávila in Ecstasy

Artists: Bernini Location: Cornaro Chapel, Rome, Italy Features: dynamic/diagonals Period: Baroque

<p>Artists: Bernini Location: Cornaro Chapel, Rome, Italy Features: dynamic/diagonals Period: Baroque</p>
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Calling of Saint Matthew

Artist: Caravaggio Location: Contarelli Chapel, Rome, Italy Features: Tenebrism Period: Baroque

<p>Artist: Caravaggio Location: Contarelli Chapel, Rome, Italy Features: Tenebrism Period: Baroque</p>
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Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor)

Artists: Velazquez Location: Spain Features: suggest high positions of courts Period: Baroque

<p>Artists: Velazquez Location: Spain Features: suggest high positions of courts Period: Baroque</p>
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Woman Holding a Balance

Artists: Vermeer Location: Dutch Republic Features: Tenebrism/ordinary life/vanitas Period: Baroque

<p>Artists: Vermeer Location: Dutch Republic Features: Tenebrism/ordinary life/vanitas Period: Baroque</p>
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Flower Still Life

Artist: Rachel Ruysch Location: Dutch Republic, Netherlands Features: Short life span/still life Period: Baroque

<p>Artist: Rachel Ruysch Location: Dutch Republic, Netherlands Features: Short life span/still life Period: Baroque</p>
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Hall of Mirrors

Artist: Hardouin-Mansart and Le Brun Location: Palace of Versailles, France Period: Baroque

<p>Artist: Hardouin-Mansart and Le Brun Location:  Palace of Versailles, France Period: Baroque</p>
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Salon de la Princesse

Artist: Germain Boffrand Location: Hotel de Soubise, Paris, Italy Period: Rococo

<p>Artist: Germain Boffrand Location:  Hotel de Soubise, Paris, Italy Period: Rococo</p>
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Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera

Artist: Jean-Antoine Watteau Location: France, Italy Features: fete galante Period: Rococo

<p>Artist: Jean-Antoine Watteau Location: France, Italy Features: fete galante Period: Rococo</p>
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Hundreds of birds admiring the Peacocks

Artist: Yin Hong Location: Ming Dynasty, China Features: serving emperor/loyalty/hanging scroll Period: China: Ming Dynasty

<p>Artist: Yin Hong Location:  Ming Dynasty, China Features: serving emperor/loyalty/hanging scroll Period: China: Ming Dynasty</p>
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The Forbidden City

Location: Bejing China mostly Ming Dynasty

<p>Location: Bejing China mostly Ming Dynasty</p>
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Poet on a Mountaintop

Artist: SHEN Zhou Location: Ming Dynasty, China Features: Ink on paper

<p>Artist: SHEN Zhou Location: Ming Dynasty, China Features: Ink on paper</p>
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The Marriage Contract

Artist: William Hogarth Location: England Features: Moral Genre/Satire Period: 18th c. England

<p>Artist: William Hogarth Location: England Features: Moral Genre/Satire Period: 18th c. England</p>
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Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures

Artist: Angelica Kauffman Location: England Features: Neoclassical Period: 18th c. England

<p>Artist: Angelica Kauffman Location: England Features: Neoclassical Period: 18th c. England</p>
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The Death of General Wolfe

Artist: Benjamin West Location: England Features: Neoclassical Period: 18c. England

<p>Artist: Benjamin West Location: England Features: Neoclassical Period: 18c. England</p>
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What are the characteristics of Baroque art and architecture and how do they compare/contrast with the Renaissance?

  • open composition -Strong use of diagonals to suggest movement -Sharp contrast of light and dark to create drama (tenebrism) -Realistic naturalism (w/o idealization)

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How did the Catholic Church use art to fit the purposes of the Counter Reformation?

Art was one of the Catholic Church's tools during the Counter-Reformation. Unlike most Protestant sects, which destroyed religious icons and whitewashed the walls of their churches in an austere style, the Catholic Church kept its icons, stained glass windows, and other art forms within its many cathedrals.

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What was influential about Caravaggio’s paintings?

use of light and shadow

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What are the primary subjects for Baroque painting in the Dutch Republic?

Portraiture (shows off wealth and status)

Nature and Science (including land and seascapes) (medicine)

Genre Paintings (everyday life) (ordinary things and people)

Still life and flower paintings

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Who were the Patrons in the Dutch Republic Baroque period?

Protestants

Businessman, merchants and traders

Not kings and popes and Catholics

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What were the social, political, and religious contexts, and how did they differ from those in Italy and Spain?

Mostly dominated by protestants that were breaking away from Spanish rule, as Spain was primarily dominated by Catholics

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Who was Louis XIV, and what was his importance? How did he use art to proclaim his power?

king of France for 73 years, longest reigning Monarch

He established the Royal Academy

Portraits of him show how he is fashionable (extravagant), with symbols on his gown which symbolizes French power (flor’dei’li)

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What are some of the varying views and roles of women during the 16th-18th centuries? What challenges did female artists face?

Womens roles were mainly to be housewives and take care of the children, and if they did work, they were over the lower class.

They had very low educations, rarely accepted into academie

If women did paint, they mainly painting flowers and still life

Women had to be trained by their fathers because it was unprofessional for them to work under a male master

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Characterize the Rococo style and its context. Where and why did the Rococo style develop?

Began in France, after the death of Louix XIV

Pastel colors Delicate, curving forms (arabesques) Delicate figures Lighthearted mood Theatrical

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What was the relationship between China and Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries?

Europe generally had exaggerated views on China

Palaces across Europe had displayed of Porcelain, so Chinese artisans would make art to appeal the European

They heavily traded with one another

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What is porcelain?

Particular type of clay that was white, mainly found in China (other clays were rough and heavy)

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What is Chinoiserie?

is the European interpretation and imitation of Chinese and other East Asian artistic traditions, especially in the decorative arts, garden design, architecture, literature, theatre, and music

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How are Confucian and Daoist principles reflected in Chinese art?

Paintings show principles of social order and nature (going with the flow) in art

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confucianism

social order, emperor is supposed to take care of his people and his people are respectful and loyal to him there will be harmony

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Daoism

go with the flow of nature, go with the way of the universe/nature (try to prolong life)

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What are the differences between the literati and professional traditions of ink painting in China?

Literati paintings incorporated elements of literature and were done by scholar artists to represent good elements such as resilience(bamboo) within the art while professional tradition ink paintings did not.

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Generally, what characterizes the Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties?

Yuan - Mongol Rule (Marco Polo) (Start having contact with Europeans) Ming - Chinese back in control (golden age) Yuan - foreign control (engaged in European life)

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What was the Enlightenment?

The age of knowledge, philosophical ideas presented:

Rational thought v. superstition (John Locke)

Equal Rights and Opportunities for “life, liberty and property” (Locke) (and “the pursuit of happiness”, Thomas Jefferson)

Hold government accountable for protecting rights (Voltaire)

Mass Education (Denis Diderot)

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How are its values reflected in art of the 18th and 19th centuries?

everyone is very focused and devoted to learning

faces are often illuminated

Moralized/Natural paintings in Britian, and France

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What was the Grand Tour?

travel throughout Europe but focused on Italy because it had a wealth of history and culture. So young people travelled for their education and on their own.

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What are veduta?

detailed, largely factual painting, drawing, or etching depicting a city, town, or other place.

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What was the structure and function of the Royal Academy?

It acted as a school to train young artists as well as a guild to govern the conduct and pricing of established masters.

Get your training and connect with patrons.

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What were the themes of the "classical style" in Neoclassical art, romantic art and architecture?

Patriotism Sacrifice for the greater goodVirtue Good behavior

Horror, violence; the terrible, the ugly

symmetry

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What were the e the characteristics, values in neoclassical, romantic art, and architecture?

Romantic Art: Romantic art had a focus on nature and the exotic parts of the world.

Architecture and sculpture: Classical and renaissance models, elements, and values Order, simplicity, balance, symmetry

Paintings: Positive, didactic (moralizing teaching) purpose Classical composition and values (symmetrical, groups) Naturalistic Clear and smooth application of paints and rendering of figures and details

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What was the Gothic Revival, and why did the Middle Ages?

Architectural style that drew its inspiration from medieval architecture and competed with the Neoclassical revivals in the United States and Great Britain.

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What distinguishes etching?

The etching needle easily scratches the primer, this is what distinguishes etching from engraving

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What is Orientalism?

The imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world

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What is going on during the Age of Exploration?

Explorers were traveling to various places due to new navigational tools, that allowed them to expand their scope.

The main interest is to get to India and Asia, looking for spices and gold.

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How were the Native Americans affected by their encounters with the Europeans?

Europeans brought a lot of diseases that killed off a lot of Native Americans

Europeans often got into conflict with the Native Americas and eventually conquered them. There was a lot of death, (smallpox).

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Oath of Heratii

Artist: Jacques Louis David Location: France Features: the defining moment when the sons pledge an oath to fight to the death for their family and Rome Period: 18c.

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George Washington

artist: Jean-Antoine Houdon, Location: Richmond Virginia Features: French made for the US / marble Period: 18 c.

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Monticello

artist: Thomas Jefferson Location: Charlottesville, Va Period: 18 c.

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Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa

Artist: Antoine-Jean Gros Features: references Napoleon’s military campaigns against the Ottoman Turks. And controversially, Napoleon had his troops poisoned after retreating from Jaffa / romantic Location: France Period: 19th c.

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The Raft of the Medusa

Artist: Théodore Gericault (supported abolition of slavery, added black individuals in the painting) Features: Romantic / historical painting / There was injustice, gruesome death, and cannibalism among the survivors Location: France Period: 19c.

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Third of May

Artist: Goya Features: Romantic / historical / anti-war statement Locations: Spain Period: 19 c.

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Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps

artist: Joseph Mallord William Turner (English) Features: sublime / romantic Location: england Period: 19c.

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The Founding of Tenochtitlan

Location: Mexico Features: Known as a place to sacrifice for the gods Period: Aztecs ca. 1325-1521

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The Goddess Coatlicue

Location: Tenochtitlan, Mexico Features: She is known as the God of Snakes Period: Aztecs ca. 1325-1521

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Machu Picchu

Location: South America: Peru Period: Incas ca. 1400s-1532

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What are some common themes and major distinctions between European and Native American art?

Convey status and power

Design values

Gender divisions

*Abstract (not naturalistic) *

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themes in Aztec Art

reflected animals Sacrifice for gods

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themes in Incas Art

Metal Work

Textiles

Stonework (Ashlar Masonry Method)

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Intaglio printing methods:

Etching and Aquatint

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etching

an impression made from a needle on an etched plate using acid

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aquatint

a print resembling a watercolor, produced from a copper plate etched with nitric acid

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portico

a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area

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Gothic Style

Medieval Gothic architecture included many impressive cathedrals distinguished by their high ceilings made with pointed arches and vaults, ethereal stained-glass windows, and ornate exterior sculptural decoration.

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nostalgic

unhappy about being away and longing for familiar things or persons

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