[PARA10] Lec 4: Food and Waterborne Protozoa and Opportunistic Coccidians

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pseudopodium

What is E. histolytica's characteristic structure that enables it to move in a creeping/crawling motion during its invasive stage?

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formed stool; diarrheal stool

E. histolytica's cysts are found in _________ while trophozoites are more commonly found in _________

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Amoebiasis

Is transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food with infective cysts.

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Gal/GalNAc

Is transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food with infective cysts.

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Detects DNA sequence of the adherence lectin of E. histolytica and differentiates it from the non-pathogenic E. dispar

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Diloxanide furoate and Metronidazole respectively

Treatment for E. histolytica cyst carriers and Intestinal and amoebic liver abscess

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Nucleus with a peripherally located nucleolus/karyosome

Distinguishing feature of E. coli trophozoite

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Nucleus with a large irregularly-shaped karyosome

Distinguishing feature of E. nana trophozoite

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1 large nucleus and large glycogen vacuole

Distinguishing feature of I. Butschlii cyst

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Very prominent central body (vacuole) pushing/ compressing the nuclei to the periphery or cyst wall

Distinguishing feature of B. hominis

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Giardiasis

Infection in the small intestines caused by the flagellate Giardia lamblia

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Entero-test or duodenal string test

Non-invasive; involves the examination of mucus (for the presence of trophozoites and cysts) from a capsule that is tied to a string and swallowed and pulled out from a patient.

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Metronidazole 250 mg three times a day for 5 days.

Treatment for Giardiasis

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Opportunistic parasitic infections

Infections that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems

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apical complex

As an Apicomplexan, coccidians are provided with _________ important for host-cell invasion and establishment of intracellular parasitism

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Sporozoite; merozoites

Coccidian's basic life cycle starts when an _________ enters a host cell—divides repeatedly to form numerous _________

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Intestinal Coccidia

Involves Cystoisospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Cryptosporidium sp

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C. belli

The least common of the three intestinal coccidia that infect humans

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The most common symptom for cystoisosporiasis

Watery diarrhea

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C. cayetanensis

Causative agent of cyclosporiasis

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C. parvum and C. hominis

The most prevalent species of Cryptosporidium causing diseases in humans

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Toxoplasma gondii

Follows a Predator-Prey life cycle: require an intermediate host and a definitive host (cat); Causative agent of toxoplasmosis

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Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Disease caused by transplacental acquisition of T. gondii.

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E. histolytica (immature cyst)

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E. histolytica (mature cyst)

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E. histolytica (trophpzoite)

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E. coli (immature cyst)

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E. coli (mature cyst)

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E. coli (trophozoite)

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I. Butschlii (cyst)

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E. nana (immature cyst)

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E. nana (mature cyst)

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E. nana (trophozoite)

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G. lamblia (cyst)

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G. lamblia (trophozoite)

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Blastocystis sp.

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Cryptosporidium spp. (oocyst)

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T. gondii (Zoitocyst/Pseudocyst)

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T. gondii (Tachyzoites)

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