New Testament: Review Questions Part 2

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How does Jesus’ resurrection connect with the Davidic Covenant?

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How does Jesus’ resurrection connect with the Davidic Covenant?

Jesus is the final Davidic king; his resurrection confirms God’s promise to David & the identity of Jesus as the Messiah; Jesus is the Son

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How does Jesus’ ascension imply Jesus’ enthronement?

Jesus is going back to the Father and is seated at His right hand

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How does Luke’s description allude to Daniel 7?

it references the “cloud” during the ascension, which aligns with the vision of the Son of Man’s exaltation

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What does Daniel’s description of the Son of Man contribute to this picture?

Jesus (the Son of Man) is returning to God the Father

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How does the inauguration of Jesus’ enthronement connect with the mission of the church?

we share in His kingdom and it is established graciously through the mission of all the nations; all nations will be included

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What three OT expectations (Ezekiel, Zechariah, Isaiah) contribute to our understanding of the significance of the Spirit’s falling on the church in Acts 2?

  • the expectation of the Spirit’s indwelling

  • the nations will be drawn to Israel’s light

  • the nations will follow David’s great Heir

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What OT text did Peter claim was being fulfilled at Pentecost?

Joel’s prophecy of the Spirit’s enablement of all of God’s people

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What are two implications that come out of their speaking in tongues?

  • foreshadowing of the church’s mission to the world

  • the reversal of Babel

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How does Acts 1:8 function as the “theme verse” for the Book of Acts?

it’s Jesus final instructions about receiving the power of the Holy Spirit and being His witnesses in Jerusalem and Judea, Samaria, and to the ends of the earth (throughout the world)

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What are the unlikely circumstances in which Philip’s ministry to Samaria takes place?

Philip is a non-apostle and there is antipathy between the Jews and Samaritans

Jesus started the ministry in Samaria, but it took a non-apostle to return (a need for breaking ethnic walls)

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What does the Ethiopian eunuch’s conversion to Christianity likely foreshadow?

the spread of the gospel to the nations

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What does the centurion’s status as a “God-fearer” mean?

there were Gentiles that were attracted to the Jewish religion (ex. Cornelius gave generously to those in need and prayed to God regularly)

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What was Peter’s contribution at the Jerusalem Council?

he testified of God’s actions in Cornelius’ house

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What was Paul and Barnabas’s contribution at the Jerusalem Council?

their testimony of God’s actions in their first missionary journey among the Gentiles

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What is James’ argument from Scripture as he seeks to confirm what Peter, Paul, and Barnabas said?

God’s clear undeniable work in these historical events (with the Gentiles seeking God) match with Scripture

(ex. David’s fallen “tent” being rebuilt, ‘that the rest of mankind may seek the Lord’)

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What did your instructor identify as the “fundamental assumption” that is necessary to appreciate Paul’s “good news”?

the existence of an All-Righteous God (taken seriously)

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Why does Luke change names in his reference to Saul/Paul?

the context of the people Paul interacted with, determined it (Jewish/Gentile audiences)

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What were the four areas of Paul’s thought that were completely revolutionized once he encountered the risen Christ?

  • Jesus is the Messiah of God (not an imposter)

  • the Law is no longer the covenant that endures

  • Christians are the true people of God (not heretics)

  • Gentiles are potential joint-heirs with Abraham (not the rejected “uncircumcised”)

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Who were the recipients of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians and when was it written?

Paul’s first churches; AD 48-49

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What was the gist of the Judaizers’ teaching?

there was a need to add elements of the law to the gospel

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How does Paul validate the authority of his gospel?

he was an Apostle of Jesus and his gospel came from Jesus (God not men)

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Why does Paul say that the law was based on “works,” according to your instructor?

he’s referring to the conditional covenant, that’s dependent on the “doing” to experience gracious blessings

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Why isn’t this the same thing as “legalism”?

it’s a response to God’s grace; grounded and sustained by grace

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How is the law’s “curse” dealt with in Paul’s gospel?

Jesus became a “curse” on the cross to remove it from us

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How is the righteous requirement of the law dealt with in Paul’s gospel?

Jesus became the perfect covenant representative that fulfilled the law’s conditions

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With whom were the Abrahamic promises made?

Jesus → Abraham’s “seed”

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In Paul’s argument, once the Seed came, what happened to the law covenant?

the law covenant has come to an end

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Who now are “Abraham’s seed”?

those who believe in Jesus (that includes us!)

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Why doesn’t Paul’s gospel lead to a life of sin?

freedom from the law’s conditions enables you to choose rightly (by walking in and by the Spirit); you’ll bear the fruit of the Spirit

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Why did Paul and Barnabas split up before the second missionary journey, and whom did both of them select as their new missionary partners?

there was division over bringing Mark along

Barnabas & Mark | Paul & Silas

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In Luke’s Acts narrative, what begins at Troas, and what does this suggest?

Paul has a vision of a Macedonian man asking him to go to Macedonia; it suggests the Spirit’s direct leading

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Why did Paul have to leave Thessalonica rather abruptly?

there was persecution from the Jews

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What was the concern of the Thessalonians regarding those who had died in their group of believers?

those who had fallen asleep would be disadvantaged (would be missing out) because Jesus hasn’t returned yet

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Why were some of the Thessalonian believers “idle”?

they believed Christ was coming quickly & quit their jobs to wait and sit around

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Why were some of the Thessalonian believers thinking with regard to the Day of the Lord?

believed the Day of the Lord has already come (the Great Tribulation was already here) because of the persecution from the Jews

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How did Paul respond to the question about those who have died?

God will bring with Jesus those who have died; they will actually rise first

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How does Paul respond to those who are “idle”?

imminent expectation shouldn’t take the form of idleness

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Lacking clear knowledge of the timing of Jesus’ return, how should a Christian be “ready”?

the Christian should live faithfully in expectation

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What are the signs that will precede the Day of the Lord that Paul indicates have not yet happened?

  • the great “apostasy” (falling/turning away from the faith/truth)

  • the coming of the “man of lawlessness” (likely the Antichrist)

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Whom did Paul meet in Corinth—people who became ministry partners?

Aquila and Priscilla

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How long did Paul remain in Corinth in this first visit?

18 months (about 1.5 years)

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How does the message of “Christ crucified” appear to the Jews and the gentiles?

Jews: it’s a stumbling block (the cross is shameful)

Gentiles: it’s foolishness

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What is God’s purpose in saving people through this kind of message?

to nullify our pride

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What is the shocking sexual behavior that is being accepted in the Corinthian church?

an incestuous relationship

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What is the point of the “parallel” between our relationship with Christ and our sexual lives?

it reflects a “oneness”: the intimacy & unity that we have with Jesus

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What does Paul affirm about the body in relation to the Holy Spirit?

the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit

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What are the implications that ensue if Christ is not raised?

  • Paul is a false witness about God

  • our faith is worthless & we’re still in our sins

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What metaphor does Paul use to explain the relationship between our current bodies and the bodies we will have in the resurrection?

a seed that is sown vs. the plant that will come forth/rise

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What final implication does Paul draw from his teaching on the resurrection?

we will have bodies like Jesus (the Last Adam) and the work we do in the Lord is not “in vain”

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After piecing together Paul’s comments and movements, what have scholars concluded concerning 1 and 2 Corinthians—1 Corinthians should be considered what, and 2 Corinthians should be considered what?

1 Corinthians = 2 Corinthians

2 Corinthians = 4 Corinthians

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What is Paul’s “fundamental message” in 2 Corinthians?

God’s power is perfected in human weakness

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What is the “rationale” behind Paul’s self-defense?

in order to protect the gospel and its teaching (because the church in Corinth has a big impact), Paul needs to defend his identity as an apostle with authority

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What are the four criticisms to which Paul responds in 2 Corinthians?

  • untrained in rhetoric

  • indecisive

  • doesn’t charge fees

  • doesn’t have letters (of recommendation/validation)

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How does Paul respond to each of these criticisms?

  • he’s untrained, yet rooted in truth and divinely powerful

  • he’s decisive out of love

  • he gives the “free” gospel out of sincerity

  • his letters are “written on the heart” (his and the Corinthians) and the fulfillment of prophecies are divine validation of his apostleship

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What are the two aspects that demonstrate the “authentic” nature of Paul’s ministry?

  • Paul’s Jewish ethnicity

  • a man’s (Paul’s) vision: man in Christ caught up to the third heaven

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What are the two aspects that point to his life of “weakness”?

  • Paul’s suffering as an apostle

  • his “thorn”

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Where is the “glory” of the New Covenant ministry “seen”?

  • the removal of the “veil”

  • glory perceived in the heart

  • the transformed person

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What are the two aspects of the “good news” Paul gives to “sufferers”?

  • the hope of eternal resurrection

  • hope of God’s future actions defining the present: empowered by a weighty hope and pleasing life to God

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Why does Paul liken himself and his co-workers to “prisoners of war”?

they’re prisoners in Christ’s aromatic procession; having the aroma of Christ

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What is Paul’s “paradoxical” ministry?

displaying God’s glory through suffering

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From what location did Paul probably write his Letter to the Romans and when did Paul expect to see them in person?


During his trip to Spain (in passing) after Jerusalem

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What was likely the make-up of the Roman church community, and how did the Edict of Claudius contribute to this?

mixed church—mainly Gentiles

the Edict of Claudius pushed out the Jews because they were causing disturbances (conflict between Christian Jews and non-Christian Jews)

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How does God’s “gospel” bring the solution to the problem of universal human sinfulness? The answer to this question has to explain “justification,” “atonement,” and “faith.”

Jesus as the atoning sacrifice demonstrates His justice by judging the sins of the past, which opens the door for Him to justify the one who has faith in Him; justification through faith by grace

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In what way is Abraham the “paradigm” of faith for followers of Jesus?

Abraham was the declared “righteous” when he was uncircumcised

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What is Jesus’ role as the “Second Adam” in relation to the “First Adam”?

Jesus undoes the damage of the First Adam

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What is the effect of the “commandment” under the law, and what is God’s answer to this problem?

the despair of humanity under the law

the life of the believer should be lived in the Spirit, God send His Son to be the offering

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As it pertains to the problem of the small number of Jews responding to the gospel, what is Paul’s “basic” answer?

not all Israel are “Israel”

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What are the essential elements of “Calvinistic” interpretation of Paul’s appeal to Isaac, Jacob, and the “potter” illustration?

God chose Isaac over Ishmael, God chose Jacob apart from works, God the potter has the choice over how He shapes the clay (God’s sovereign and unconditional decree)

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What are the essential elements of the “alternative” interpretation presented by your instructor of Paul’s use of Isaac, Jacob, and the “potter” illustration?

Isaac is the child of the promise and Israel will come through the promise which implies faith, God didn’t chose Jacob on the basis of works (one has to come to God by faith not works), God the potter shapes the “clay” in light of people’s rebellion/faithfulness

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What does Paul say is the appropriate “response” to this message of God’s mercy?

responding to His mercy with faithfulness

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How are sin and death connected in Genesis 3?

Adam and Eve sinning (taking the serpent’s bait) resulted in death, as promised

(returning back to dust; ground is cursed until we return to the ground)

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What is the “redemptive promise” in Genesis 3?

an offspring from the woman will crush the head of the serpent and be struck in the process

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In what ways did Jesus experience the reign of sin in his earthly life?

He became sin (identified with sin) and experienced death on the cross

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What was the effect of Jesus’ death regarding his experience with sin?

Jesus’ experience with sin was ended (after His death and resurrection)

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What are the two “heads” of humanity?

  • Adam’s sin

  • Jesus’ righteous life + sacrifice

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What are the two ways in which people are in “solidarity” with Jesus through baptism/conversion?

solidarity with Jesus in death and life

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What is God’s purpose in identifying people with Jesus?

that we may live with Jesus in the new age where sin no longer reigns

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What is the “resolution” to the “problem”?

  • consider to be true, what is in fact true

  • so that God’s pronouncement will become actualized in our lives

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What is meant by the “passive” and “aggressive” relationship with the Spirit?

  • passive: led by the Spirit; the Spirit is leading you

  • aggressive: once you’ve experienced that, you put to death your sinful nature

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Why did the Jews almost stone Paul in the temple courts?

they assumed Paul defiled the temple (ignored the balustrade) and brought in Gentiles that were prohibited

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Why did Paul “appeal to Caesar”?

to save his life; he was a Roman citizen

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What are Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and Philippians called?

the prison epistles

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Ephesus was known for what kind of religious beliefs?

magic and the occult

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What were the elements of the OT background that are especially relevant to the study of Ephesians?

  • the serpent’s deception

    • trusting in the evil one

    • reign of the evil one

  • the reign of death

  • the reign of sin

  • the division of humanity

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How are each of the problems from our ancient past rectified in Jesus?

  • trusting in the evil one → faith in Christ (salvation by grace)

  • reign of the evil one → Christ is seated above (our enthronement with Jesus)

  • the reign of death → Christ’s resurrection (our union with the risen Christ)

  • the reign of sin → Christ’s redemption (our gracious liberation of sin’s reign)

  • the division of humanity → our unified identity in Christ

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What is the “Indicative” and the “Imperative” in Paul’s theology?

indicative: fact

imperative: command

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Since we are “one” in Christ, what does Paul exhort the Ephesians to do?

we must be unified

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Since we are “in Christ,” what does Paul exhort the Ephesians to do?

we must put on the “new self”

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Since the Spirit lives in us, what does Paul exhort the Ephesians to do?

we must be “filled” with the Spirit

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Since we are seated with Christ above all authorities, what does Paul exhort the Ephesians to do?

we must fight against the darkness

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What are two things we should observe when we try to derive theology from narrative?

  • prescription vs. description

  • discern patterns and reasons for the patterns

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What is the “Second Blessing” perspective?

  • conversion first, then baptism in the Spirit in power

  • pilot light and full burner analogy

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What are the times in Acts when “tongues” explicitly occur? What is the time when they occur implicitly?


  • Pentecost (Acts 2)

  • Cornelius’ house (Acts 10)

  • disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19)


  • Samaria (Acts 8)

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What is the one occurrence where there does occur a “gap” between conversion and the occurrence of tongues?

in Samaria

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What is the “Apostolic Validation” theory and how does this offer an explanation for this gap?

the Spirit withheld until the Apostles could validate its presence

the unity of the early church was perserved

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What are the plausible reasons that tongues occurred in each case in Acts?

Samaria: to break down division between the Jews and Samaritans

Cornelius’ house: to break down division between Jews and Gentiles

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What are Paul’s apparent views on the question of the continuation of tongues in the church age?

tongues apparently continue in the church

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What are Paul’s apparent views on the relative importance of tongues and prophecy in the church?

  • should be used to edify the church, the church is the body of Christ

  • prophecy is better than tongues

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What are Paul’s apparent views on the practice of tongues in the gathered community?

it’s orderly:

  • there must be an interpreter

  • if not, one should keep quiet

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What are Paul’s apparent views on the question of how many believers will speak in tongues?

not all will speak in tongues

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