Biology and Society Final Exam

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Which species concept defines a species as organisms that share a set of unique physical characteristics not found on other groups of organisms?

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Which species concept defines a species as organisms that share a set of unique physical characteristics not found on other groups of organisms?

Morphological species

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Species

primary classification group with most closely related members

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Genus

broader group; capitalized first part of the name

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Species (in a name)

second part of the name

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Subspecies

additional name applied to more specific groups

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The Biological species concept

a group of individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

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Species are reproductively isolated

they cannot produce fertile offspring with members of other species

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Gene pool

sum total of the alleles found in all individuals of a species

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Gene flow

transfer of genetic material (alleles) from one population to another

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prefertilization

prevents fertilization from occurring

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postfertilization

fertilization occurs but hybrid cannot reproduce

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Hybrid

life offspring produced by mating between two different species; often sterile

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mule

hybrid of horse and donkey

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Speciation

the evolution of one or more species from an ancestral from

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Three steps for a new species

Isolation of gene pools of populations of the species Evolutionary changes in gene pools of populations Evolution of reproductive isolation between populations

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Migration

small population becomes isolated in location far from main population

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Allopatric populations

isolated from each other by distance or a geologic barrier (allo= “different”)

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Sympatric populations

separate gene pools despite living near each other (sym-= “together”)

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Gradualism

slow accumulation of small changes over long period of time (assumed by darwin)

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Punctuated equilibrium

sudden, dramatic changes followed by long periods of little change

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Biological race

populations of one species that have diverged from each other as a result of isolation of gene pools

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Biologists may use genealogical species concept

organisms able to interbreed, descended from a common ancestor, and representing independent evolutionary lineage

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The morphological species concept

a group of individuals with some reliable physical characteristics distinguishing them from all other species

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more practical definition for paleontologists

scientists who study fossils

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Homo erectus

immediate predecessor of homo sapiens

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Human race

not independent evolutionary groups

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Covergent evolution

unrelated organisms resemble each other due to similar environmental factors

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Genetic drift

change in allele frequency that occurs due to chance (it is random)

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A volcano eruption kills most of a squirrel population, the surviving squirrels have a different gene pool from the original population. What type of genetic drift did this?

Bottleneck effect

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Founder Effect

genetic differences resulting when a small sample of a larger group begins a new population

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Bottleneck Effect

variant of effect; a small number survives after disaster wipes out most of the population

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Sexual selection

when a trait influences the likelihood of mating

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Assortative mating

preference to mate with someone like self

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Communicable or transmissible diseases

transmitted from one individual to another

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infectious agents

invade tissues and induce damage

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Epidemic

disease affecting many people within a region

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Pandemic

disease that is prevalent over a whole country or the world

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Pathogens

disease-causing organisms

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Which statement about viruses is incorrect?

Viruses are prokaryotes

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Contagious pathogen

spreads from one organism to another

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Bacteria

tiny single cell prokaryotes

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Toxins

bacterial secretions that also cause symptoms

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Antibiotics

medications to routinely treat bacterial infections

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Viruses

packers of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (capsid)

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Herd immunity

indirect way to provide protection to individuals who cannot be vaccinated (pregnant women, infants, immunocompromised)

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Skin and Mucous membranes are important components of the nonspecific first part of defense.

true

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the immune system

protects against infection

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first line of defense

nonspecific external defense

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skin

physical barrier, sheds, takes pathogens with it

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Mucous membranes

secrete mucus, line respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts

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First line of defense examples

ekin, mucous membranes, digestive secretions, vomiting

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Second line of defense

nonspecific internal defense

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Phagocytes

white blood cells that engulf and digest all invaders indiscriminately

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Macrphages

one type of phagocytic white cell

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Second line of defense

nonspecific internal defense

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inflamation

response to tissue injury

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fever

body temp above 97-99 degrees fahrenheit

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Inferferons

produces by virus infected cells

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complement system

enhances ability to fight off invaders

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Second line of defense examples

interferons, complement system, fever, inflammation, phagocytes, macrophages

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Which body structure secretes antibodies?

B cells

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Third line of defense:

specific defense, used if pathogen gets through nonspecific defenses, made of white blood cells

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B and T cells display specificity:

they recognize specific antigens

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B and T cells produce antigen receptors

proteins that fit perfectly to antigens

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B cells

lymphocytes that make antibodies

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antibodies

proteins that identify and neutralize pathogens

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T cells

lymphocytes that directly attack invaders, respond to body cells gone awry, fungi, cancer

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Anticipating infection

ability of lymphocytes response to specific antigen, begins before birth

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Immune response

ability to respond to infection

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Cell mediated immunity

involves T cells rather than antibodies. t cells rapidly divide, produces memory cells

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Memory cells

help body responds quickly to pathogen in future

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Antibody mediated immunity

secreted antibodies attack pathogens; provided by b cells,b cell copies itself, making a clonal population of identical memory cells, these memory cells fight infection by secreting antibodies

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Inactivation of the infectious agent:

occurs when antibodies encounter a pathogen matching the variable region

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Vaccination

take advantage of long term protection from antibody producing memory cells

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Tuberculosis(TB)consumption

disease caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis -2 billion people carry TB -new infection rate 1 per second -causes 2 million deaths per year,Symptoms: cough that produces blood, fever, fatigue, long relentless wasting, nodules in lungs,1940s, antibiotics revolutionized TB treatment, then in 1980s antibiotic resistant TB increased, now 500,000 cases every year of multidrug resistant TB

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Many humans would have to die for humans to develop resistance to the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.

True

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Tuberculosis fits darwin's observations

Organisms in populations vary, bacterial variants of M. tuberculosis that resist antibiotics exist The variation among organisms can be passed onto offspring. The genes for antibiotic resistance are passed to other bacteria More organisms are produced than survive. Antibiotics eliminate most of the bacteria in the infected individual An organism's survival is not random, bacteria with an antibiotic resistance are more likely to survive and reproduce

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How can we stop drug resistance?

Combination drug therapy (drug cocktail), different drugs kill variants that have resistance to different compounds, prevents survival of organisms with resistance

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Ecology

study of the interactions among organisms, as well as between organisms and their environment

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Population

all the individuals of a species in a given area

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Population structure

characteristics of a population, distribution and abundance

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Distribution

the spacing of individuals

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Abundance

the density of individuals

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Population size

estimated by population ecologists (and others)

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Direct counting

individuals are counted or surveyed, e.g. U.S. census

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Mark-recapture method

Estimated the size of more mobile or inconspicuous species , mark and release all animals found, later catch another group in same area and estimate population using percent marked in second catch

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Population dispersion

how organisms are distributed in space -Clumped distribution -Uniform distribution -Random distribution

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On a global scale, what type of population distribution do humans show?

clumped distribution

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Clumped Distribution

-high densities in resource rich areas -low densities elsewhere - ex. plants that require certain soil conditions

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Uniform Distribution

-spacing between individuals tends to be equal -species with this pattern are often territorial -ex. Nesting penguins

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Random Distribution

-shown by nonsocial species with ability to tolerate wide range of conditions -also occurs where resources are distributed evenly or randomly -ex. Plants with windblown seeds

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Exponential growth

growth that occurs in proportion to the current total -has a j shaped curve -occurs under ideal growth conditions -density dependent

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density dependent

growth is not limited by population density or resource availability

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super exponential growth

faster than exponential growth) ex. human population

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Growth rate

birth rate-death rate

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birth rate

the number of births as a percentage of the population birth rate = 17.7/1000= 0/01700=1.77%

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Current growth rate

1%

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Demographic transition

the period when a society’s population shifts from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rates, usually happens during industrialization

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Pre industrial revolution

high births and death rates, after death rates decrease, birth rates decrease

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