Unit 1 AP Psych Vocab

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Empiricism

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68 Terms

1

Empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

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2

Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Interested in what the mind is made up of

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3

Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

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4

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

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5

Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

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6

Behaviorism

A branch of psychology that focuses on the study of observable behavior

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7

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

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8

Cognitive Psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, judging and perceiving

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9

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

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10

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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11

biological psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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12

evolutionary psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

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13

psychodynamic psychology

Modern version of psychoanalytic - A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. Keywords: unconscious, childhood, dream analysis, hypnosis, free association.

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14

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

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15

socio-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

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16

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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17

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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18

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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19

industrial-organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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20

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

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21

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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22

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

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23

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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24

Mary Calkins

Completed the requirements for her doctorate in psychology but Harvard denied her degree; first female president of APA

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25

Charles Darwin

Founder of the evolutionary predictive and evolution

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26

Dorthea Dix

created the first generation of American and European mental asylums; was an advocate for the mentally ill

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27

Sigmund Freud

Founded psychoanalysis and theory of unconscious mind

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28

G. Stanley Hall

Founded APA, first person to earn a degree in psychology, helped establish psychology as an academic field

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29

William James

Founded functionalism, founder of American psychology, first to teach psychology psychology

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30

Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning, one of the founders of behavioralism

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31

Jean Piaget

Known for his theory of cognitive development in children

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32

Carl Rogers

founder of humanistic perspective and created unconditional positive regard

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33

B. F. Skinner

behaviorism; skinner box

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34

Margret Floy Washburn

first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology

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35

John Watson

founder of behaviorism

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36

William Wundt

father of psychology, separated psychology from philosophy, first to be referred to as a psychologist, established first true experimental lab in modern psychology

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37

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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38

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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39

Median

the middle score in a distribution

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40

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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41

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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42

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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43

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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44

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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45

random sampling

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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46

Scatter plot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

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47

illusion correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

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48

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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49

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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50

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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51

Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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52

Experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

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53

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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54

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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55

operational definition

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

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56

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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57

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

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58

Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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59

Population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn for a study

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Sample

items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population

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61

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

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62

Placebo

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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63

placebo effect

any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo

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64

experimental group

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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65

control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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66

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

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67

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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68

Debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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