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what are the three levels of government in america

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what are the three levels of government in america

national/federal, state, local

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what are the 3 branches of the federal government

executive, legislative, judicial

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Who is in the Executive Branch?

president

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Who is in the legislative branch?

congress

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who is in the congress

senate and house of representatives

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which election happens every 4 years

presidential election

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what election happens every 2 years

house of representative election

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what election happens every 2 years in thirds

senate election

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what is the definition of incumbent

current office holder

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what are the primary elections or "primaries"

elections used by the political parties to pick their candidate - for every elective position

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what do we call the year in between presidential elections - 2020 through 2024, 2022 was ___

mid term

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What was the Renaissance?

a great burst of learning and technological innovation

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what does renaissance mean

rebirth

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when was the renaissance

late 1300s - 1600s

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who was johannes gutenberg

german inventor of printing press

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was johanes gutenberg the first to invent the printing press

no, china invented it first, but didn't share it with the world - gutenberg invented it with no knowledge of chinese version and with european letters

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why did western leaders look for alternative rade routes to asia

Italians controlled land routes, so Europeans tried to find a water route so they could control trade with Asia through the ocean

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what did Spain and France have in common from the colonization of the Americas

absolute monarchy - similar ruling styles

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what law did the spanish make to enforce their rule

law of the Indies - governed every day life in New Spain

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what treasure did the spanish find in the americas

gold and silver - caused forced labor

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what was the north west passage

water route through or around north america to asia - wasn't found

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why were there very few settlers in New France

lack of gold and silver, colder, hard to farm

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what was the "gold" in new france

fur

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what was the difference between the french and the spanish

spain enslaved native americans, france gained good relations with Native americans for trade

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where was new netherland

below new france

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who took over new netherland, making new netherland a short term rule for the dutch

british settlers

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What was the Protestant Reformation?

a divide in religion with Europe

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who was martin luther

a german monk who challenged many practices of the catholic church

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what did martin luther found

Lutheran Church

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which countries were catholic

Spain and France

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which countries were protestant

England and the Netherlands

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what did samuel de chaplain found and when?

port royal in 1605

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what was important about port royal

first permanent French settlement in North America

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what did Samuel de chaplain do 3 years after founding a settlement

led a group of french settlers along a route Jaques Cartier had developed

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what did de chaplain build

trading port now known as Quebec

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Why did france grow slowly

not many settlers came to North America

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where did peter minuit lead the dutch settlers

to the mouth of the hudson river

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what did minuit buy from the Native Americans

Manhattan Island

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what did Minuit call manhattan island

New Amsterdam

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why were the dutch and the french rivals

They became rivals in the fur industry and both wanted better relations with the Native americans

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how did the dutch and the french compromise with each other

they made an alliance where the Dutch became allies with the iroquoi and the French became allies with the Huron

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who gained the queens permission to start a settlement in the americas - Roanoke

sir walter raleigh

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when and how many people set sail to come to the americas

in 1586 100 british men came to the Americas and landed in the island of roanoke

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What happened a year into the settling of Roanoke?

settlers ran out of food and began quarreling with Native Americans

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what was sir raleigh's plan to fix the disasters in Roanoke, but what ended up happening?

planned to return to england for 3 months and collect supplies, however, England was preparing for war so he ended up staying for 3 years

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what happened when raleigh came back to roanoke

found the colony deserted with a single clue hinting to where they had gone, a tree that said "ROANOKE"

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when was jamestown settled

20 years after the failure at roanoke, 1607

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who founded jamestown

the virginia company of london

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why did the virginia company of london set it up?

heard of spains increasing monetary growth and wanted the riches for themselves

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what is a charter

A legal document giving certain rights to a person or company

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what problems did Jamestown face

governing the colony, starvation - settlers werent used to living in the wilderness and didn't know how to use their resources - didn't spend enough time producing food - settlers searched in vain for gold instead of foraging and planting food

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Who was John Smith and what did he do?

english captain who set up strict rules and forced colonists to work if they wanted to eat

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how did jamestown begin to succeed

grew tobacco plantations - imported to England

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what was the house of burgesses

The burgesses, or representatives to the government that were elected by only male settlers, met in an assembly called the house of Burgesses

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why was the house of burgesses important

signifies the beginning of representative government in the english colonies

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what was the role of women in jamestown

brought to Jamestown to make men more settled and had to make food, clothing, and medicine from scratch

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what is a rough percentage of women to men in jamestown

roughly 30% of jamestown was women - less than 300 women for over 1000 men

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how was slavery introduced to Jamestown

introduced through the dutch because the dutch sold enslaved africans to the virginians since they needed laborers to grow tobacco

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what two things are needed to technically commit a crime in america

mens rea and actis reas

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what is mens rea

mindset needed for a crime

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what is actis reas

act/conduct needed for a crime

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what was prince henry called

the navigator

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what was special about prince henry

set up schools for ship building and sailing

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what is a caravel

type of ship used by prince henry

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characteristics of a caravel

triangular sails, smaller ship

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