chapter 4, test

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microscopy is…

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1

microscopy is…

the invention and development of the microscope

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2

____ has been crucial to the understanding of cells and their processes

the microscope

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3

two important parameters in microscopy?

magnification and resolution

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4

what is the enlargement of the specimen

magnification

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5

what is the clarity of the specimen

resolution

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6

the light microscope uses _____ to pass through a specimen and glass lenses

visible light

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7

what is an advantage of the light microscope?

can view live specimen

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8

the light microscope cannot resolve finer than approximetaly_____(one bacteria cell)

0.2mm

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9

the light microscope can magnify effectively about ____ the size of the specimen

1000 times

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10

the transmission electron microscope uses a _____to produce an image

beam of electrons that passes through the specimen

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11

TEM can reveal details of ____ _____ such as organelles in cells

internal structures

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12

specimen are DEAD dead due to prep methods in what TWO microscopes

TEM and SEM

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13

In TEM, cells must be _______

sliced very thin

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14

in TEM, cells are stained with__

heavy metals

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15

TEM can leave ______ on specimen viewed

artifacts

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16

SEM uses a beam of electrons to_______

scan the surface of the objects

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17

SEM produces a detailed ____ of the surface of the specimen

3-D

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18

SEM specimen are coated with a_____

thin layer of gold

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19

cell fractionation is important because____

scientist have used it to isolate and study smaller cell components(organelles)

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20

prokaryotic cells contain DNA in a ______- a no membrane bound nucleus

nucleoid region

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21

prokaryotes are ___ than eukaryotes

smaller

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22

eukaryotic cells contain DNA in a ____

membrane bound nucleus

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23

eukaryotic cells DO contain this while prokaryotic cells DO NOT

membrane bound organelles

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24

eukaryotic cells are _____than prokaryotic cells

much larger

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25

minimum size a cell can be in order to_________ and _________ to carry out life processes

house enough DNA and cellular enzymes

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26

maximum amount of ___________________ for a celle to have substances enter and leave the cell at a sufficient rate

surface area to volume ratio

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27

in compartmentalization- provides different local environments for specific metabolic functions which are _______ with one another

incompatible

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28

in compartmentalization- _____________________ in the membranes around organelles that help them with their functions

enzymes are often embedded

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29

the nucleus is usually the ______organelle

most noticable

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30

Nucleus contains ______of eukaryotic cells

most genes

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31

Nucleus- genes are in form of______

chromatin

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32

nucleus enclosed by a double membrane called the ______

nuclear envelope

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33

nuclear envelope has openings called _____

nuclear pores

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34

in the center of the nucleus is another structure called the ____

nucleOUS

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35

the nucleous is responsible for ___________

synthesizing the structural components of ribosomes

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36

ribosomes are made of ___

rRNA and proteins

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37

ribosomes consist of ___________________ that snap together during protein synthesis

large and small subunit

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38

cells that generate many proteins have more ribosomes. ex:

pancreas cells

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39

ribosomes are the most___

numerous

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40

free ribosomes are found____

suspended in cytosol

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41

ribosomes make proteins to be _____

used w/ the cell

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42

bound ribosomes are found _________

tethered to rough ER

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43

Rough ER make proteins to be used _______

in membranes or sent out of the cell

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44

form the boundary of the cell;acts as a selective barrier allowing certain materials to pass but not others

cell membrane

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45

the entire region between the nucleus and the cell membrane; consists of cytosol

cytoplasm

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46

contains most of the genes that control the eukaryotic cell; generally the most conspicuous organelle in a eukaryotic cell; contains the nucleolus and chromatin

nucleus

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47

where the components of the ribosomes are made and assembled; found in the nucleus

nucleolus

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48

chromatin

consists of DNA and proteins; condenses to form chromosomes

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49

double membrane that forms the boundary between the nuclear contents and the cytoplasm; perforated with pores

nuclear envelope

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50

site of protein synthesis; suspended in the cytosol; produces proteins for the use within the cell

free ribosomes

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51

site of protein synthesis; attached to the outside surface of the endoplasmic reticulum; produces proteins for use outside the cell or for use in the cell membrane

bound ribosomes

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52

synthesizes lipids including phospholipids and steroids; metabolizes carbohydrates; detoxifies durgs and poisons; stores calcium ions

smooth ER

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53

consists of flattened membranous sacs; receives transport vesicles from the ER and the modifies those ER products; produces certain molecules; produces lysosomes and secretory vesicles

golgi apparatus

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54

channels proteins to transport vesicles; attaches carbohydrate to some proteins; involved in membrane production through the production of vesicles

rough ER

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55

transport vesicles

carries ER products to the Golgi

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56

carries golgi modified products to the cell membrane; fuses with the cell membrane releasing the contents to outside the cell

secretory vesicle

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57

membrane bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes; enzymes are used to digest food, other molecules, and old, worn out cell parts

lysosome

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58

membrane bound sacs; larger than vesicles and store materials

vacuole

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59

site of cellular respiration; produces ATP from sugars, fats, and other fuels

mitochondria

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60

site of photosynthesis; produce food using light energy, CO2 and H2O

chloroplast

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61

contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from substrates to oxygen producing H2O2; detoxifies alcohol; contains enzymes(catalase) that convert H2O2 to H20 and O2

peroxisome

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62

paired structures found in animal cells; consist of microtubules in a 9+0 arrangement; involved in cell division

centrioles

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63

consist of DNA and proteins

chromosomes and chromatin

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64

tightly coiled

chromosomes

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65

condensed

chromosomes

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66

dispersed

chromosomes

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67

uncoiled

chromatin

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68

decondensed

chromatin

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69

consist of 2 subunits

free ribosomes and bound ribsomes

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70

composed of rRNA and proteins

free ribosomes and bound ribosomes

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71

produce proteins for use within the cell

free ribosomes

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72

suspended in the cytosol

free ribosomes

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73

produce proteins for export

bound ribosomes

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74

attached to rough ER

bound ribosomes

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75

make up spindle fibers,centrioles, cilia, and flagella

microtubules

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76

made of tubulin

microtubules

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77

straight, hollow tubes

microtubules

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78

involved in cell transport

microtubules, micro filaments

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79

provide tracts for organelle movement

microtubules

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80

involved in muscle contraction and localized cell contractions

microfilaments

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81

form 3D support network just inside the cell membrane

microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments

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82

solid rods made of actin

microfilaments

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83

can divide an animal cell in two by forming a contractile ring

microfilaments

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84

produces cytoplasmic streaming

microfilaments

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85

composition varies

intermediate filament

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86

more permanent and intermediate in diameter

intermediate filament

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87

reinforces cell shape and may fix organelle position

intermediate filament, microfilament, microtubules

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88

what do animal cells contain that plant cells do not?

lysosomes, centrosomes(with centrioles), flagella

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89

what do plant cells contain that animal cells do not?

chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall, plasmodesmata

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90

the microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules make up___

cytoskeleton

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91

how do plant and animal cells differ?

plants have a large vacuole, they sore food, waste, and water; animals have a small vacuole and some animal cells have none

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92

how are plant and animal cells similar?

vacuoles are used for storage in both cells

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93

large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

proteins

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94

what is a common route for proteins in the endomembrane system(produced from bound ribosomes)

Rough ER-vesicles-Golgi-secretory vesicles-plasma membrane

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95

which of the following is one of the main energy transformers of cells?

mitochondrion

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96

what is not found in a prokaryotic cell?

a membrane bound nucleus

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97

long fibers of DNA and protein are called

chromatin

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98

cell size is limited by?

surface to volume ratios

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99

which organelle is responsible for digesting foreign substances and/or worn out organelles

lysosomes

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100

what is an example of something that does no contain its own DNA

peroxisomes

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