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  1. Using your EQUATION SHEET, what would be the difference in electronegativity for the molecule CO? Make sure you do oxygen's electronegativity minus carbon's electronegativity.

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1
  1. Using your EQUATION SHEET, what would be the difference in electronegativity for the molecule CO? Make sure you do oxygen's electronegativity minus carbon's electronegativity.

0.89

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Building directly off the previous question, use the Bond Character Table on the EQUATION sheet to determine what bond character is in the molecule CO. A Mostly ionic B. Polar covalent C. Mostly covalent D. Nonpolar covalent

polar covalent

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  1. Using the Electronegativity Table, the Electronegativity Equation, and the Bond Character Table, identify what type of bond exists between carbon and selenium. A. Mostly ionic B. Polar covalent C. Mostly covalent D. Nonpolar covalent

nonpolar covalent

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<p>The picture below shows the correct Lewis Dot Structure of HCN.</p>

The picture below shows the correct Lewis Dot Structure of HCN.

true

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  1. How many significant figures are in 6,000.00? A.4 B. S C) 6 D.7

6

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Add the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures; 13.5 cm + 96.2312 cm + 79 cm

D. 189 cm

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  1. Multiply the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures: 29.438 m x4127 m =

121,500 m2

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  1. What is the correct formula for the compound of magnesium bonding with sulfate?

D. MgSO4

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What is the correct name for the compound CaF2?

C. Calcium fluoride

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  1. What is the correct formula for the compound of lead (Pb4) bonding with sulfur?

PbS2

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  1. What is the correct name for the compound of lead (Pb4) bonding with sulfur?

(A. Lead (IV) sulfide

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  1. What is the correct formula and name for the compound of silver (Ag+) bonding with oxygen?

Ag2O > Silver oxide

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When naming a covalent compound, the prefix mono is never used for the first element in a formula. True or false?

true

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  1. What is the name of CF4?

C. Carbon tetrafluoride

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  1. What is unique about metalloids?

A.) Metalloids have some characteristics of nonmetals and some characteristics of metals.

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  1. Name this compound: N204

C. Dinitrogen tetroxide

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  1. What is the formula for diphosphorus pentoxide?

P2O5

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The two types of covalent bonds are polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. How are these two types of bonds described?

Polar bonds share electrons unequally and have a dipole moment. Nonpolar bonds share electrons equally and do not have a dipole moment.

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  1. Compare the bonds between O2 and CH4. What statement accurately describes these bond comparisons?

The bonds in O2 are stronger and shorter than the bonds in CH4

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  1. NH3 is what type of molecule?

A. Polar molecule

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  1. Which pair of elements is likely to produce a polar covalent bond? A Br and Br B. Cand Se C. Li and Cl D N and F

N and F

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CBr4 is what type of molecule?

nonPolar Molecule

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Which property of water explains why droplets of water are able to combine, streaming down the window?

Cohesion

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Which property of water explains why droplets of water are able to stick to the window?

Adhesion

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<ol start="25"><li><p>For the following molecule below, which statement is correct? A. It is a nonpolar molecule, due to everything being equal and all dipole moments canceling out. B. It is a polar molecule, due to an imbalance of strength with the fluorine atoms. C. It is a metallic molecule, due to the metallic bonds present in the bonds. D. None of the above.</p></li></ol>
  1. For the following molecule below, which statement is correct? A. It is a nonpolar molecule, due to everything being equal and all dipole moments canceling out. B. It is a polar molecule, due to an imbalance of strength with the fluorine atoms. C. It is a metallic molecule, due to the metallic bonds present in the bonds. D. None of the above.

B. It is a polar molecule, due to an imbalance of strength with the fluorine atoms.

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<ol start="26"><li><p>In this Lewis Structure below, the symbol above F means. A. Electrons are less attracted to fluorine compared to hydrogen. Liccuons are being wansicired to fuvrine from ny urogen. C. Electrons are getting pulled towards fluorine and away from hydrogen. D. Fluorine has formed an anion.</p></li></ol>
  1. In this Lewis Structure below, the symbol above F means. A. Electrons are less attracted to fluorine compared to hydrogen. Liccuons are being wansicired to fuvrine from ny urogen. C. Electrons are getting pulled towards fluorine and away from hydrogen. D. Fluorine has formed an anion.

Electrons are getting pulled towards fluorine and away from hydrogen.

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  1. Which part of a water molecule has a partially positive charge?

A. By the hydrogen atoms.

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<p>For the following molecule below, which statement is correct? A. This is a nonpolar molecule and there would be no dipole moment. B. This is a polar molecule and the net dipole moment would point upward, towards phosphorus. C. This is a nonpolar molecule due to all of the dipole moments canceling each other out. D. This is a polar molecule and the net dipole moment would point downward, towards chlorine.</p>

For the following molecule below, which statement is correct? A. This is a nonpolar molecule and there would be no dipole moment. B. This is a polar molecule and the net dipole moment would point upward, towards phosphorus. C. This is a nonpolar molecule due to all of the dipole moments canceling each other out. D. This is a polar molecule and the net dipole moment would point downward, towards chlorine.

D. This is a polar molecule and the net dipole moment would point downward, towards chlorine.

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<p>When looking at the bonds between the three carbon atoms, which answer is correct using the Lewis diagram shown above? A. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the right is stronger because there are more hydrogen atoms attached to the rightmost carbon atom than to the leftmost carbon atom. B. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the left is weaker because it is a double bond. C. The carbon-to-carbon bonds are the same strength because the C-C-C bond angle is 180° D. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the left is stronger because it is a double bond.</p>

When looking at the bonds between the three carbon atoms, which answer is correct using the Lewis diagram shown above? A. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the right is stronger because there are more hydrogen atoms attached to the rightmost carbon atom than to the leftmost carbon atom. B. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the left is weaker because it is a double bond. C. The carbon-to-carbon bonds are the same strength because the C-C-C bond angle is 180° D. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the left is stronger because it is a double bond.

D. The carbon-to-carbon bond on the left is stronger because it is a double bond.

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<ol start="30"><li><p>Water molecules are polar covalent molecules. There is a partial negative charge near the oxygen atom and partial positive charges near the hydrogen atoms, due to the uneven distribution of electrons between the atoms. This uneven distribution results in the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The polarity of water molecules contributes to many properties of water that are important for biological processes. Which of the following models best demonstrates the arrangement of hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules?</p></li></ol>
  1. Water molecules are polar covalent molecules. There is a partial negative charge near the oxygen atom and partial positive charges near the hydrogen atoms, due to the uneven distribution of electrons between the atoms. This uneven distribution results in the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The polarity of water molecules contributes to many properties of water that are important for biological processes. Which of the following models best demonstrates the arrangement of hydrogen bonds between adjacent water molecules?

D

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  1. Which water property allows this bug to walk on the surface of water?

A.Surface Tension

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<p>The figure above shows a strong attraction between two HCI molecules. What is the name of this attraction?</p>

The figure above shows a strong attraction between two HCI molecules. What is the name of this attraction?

B. Dipole-Dipole Forces

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<p>Looking at the picture below of methane, what are the VSEPR and bond angles of this molecule?</p>

Looking at the picture below of methane, what are the VSEPR and bond angles of this molecule?

Tetrahedral; 109.5°

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<ol start="34"><li><p>Based on the picture above, what is the best explanation as to why the central atoms (sulfur on the left and arsenic on the right) are able to break the Octet Rule?</p></li></ol>
  1. Based on the picture above, what is the best explanation as to why the central atoms (sulfur on the left and arsenic on the right) are able to break the Octet Rule?

This is due to the ability of sulfur and arsenic being able to store extra electrons in "d" orbitals during these situations of exceptions.

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  1. In a molecule in which the central atom exhibits sp3 hybrid orbitals, the VSEPR shape could be:

C.) Trigonal Pyramid

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  1. What is the VSEPR and bond angle of H20?

B. Bent; 104.5°

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  1. What is the hybridization for the central atom in SO2? Additionally, what is the VSEPR shape and the bond angle for SO2?

sp2, Bent. 120°

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38
  1. Liquid HF has a much higher boiling point than liquid F2. Which of the following explains how the dispersion-force model of intermolecular attraction accounts for the unusually high Boiling point of liquid HF? A The F2 molecule has a greater mass than the HF molecule has. B. Liquid F2 has strong dispersion force attractions between its molecules, whereas liquid HF has weak ionic forces between H+ and F- ions. C. Liquid F2 has weak dispersion force attractions between its molecules, whereas liquid HF has both weak dispersion force attractions and hydrogen bonding between its molecules. D. Both B and C.

C. Liquid F2 has weak dispersion force attractions between its molecules, whereas liquid HF has both weak dispersion force attractions and hydrogen bonding between its molecules.

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39
  1. How many significant figures are in 3,001.000?

7

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  1. Round 65,779 to FOUR significant figures.

B) 65780

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41
  1. Add the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures: 31.45 cm + 69.3212 cm + 87.04 cm =

187.81 cm

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42

Multiply the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures: 438.299 m x214 m

93,800 m2

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43
  1. After completing an experiment, your results showed your measurements to be: 49.24 cm, 53.3 cm, and 43.26 cm. The target measurement was 43.27 cm. What can be said about your measurements in your results? A. My measurements show neither accuracy nor precision, when compared to the target measurement. B. My measurements show precision with my values, but it does not show accuracy when compared to the target measurement. C . My measurements do not show precision but one does show accuracy, when compared to the target measurement. D. My measurements show accuracy and precision, when compared to the target measurement.

My measurements do not show precision but one does show accuracy, when compared to the target measurement.

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Which of the following observations would indicate a chemical change has happened? a. Substance breaks into smaller pieces B. substance produces smoke c. substance is folded in half d. substance is melted

b. substance produces smoke

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45

Thinking back to the physical & Chemical Changes Lab, what were some chemical properties of the magnesium strip? A. Its ability to change its color, its ability to change its smell, and its flammability. B. Its color being gray, its ability to produce bright light, and its ability to melt. c. Its color being gray, its ability to burn, and its shininess D. its melting point, its boiling point, and its density

A. Its ability to change its color, its ability to change its smell, and its flammability

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Which of the following electron configurations is correct for tin?

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2

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<ol start="9"><li><p>Given the picture above, what did the Rutherford experiment conclude?</p></li></ol>
  1. Given the picture above, what did the Rutherford experiment conclude?

The atom is mostly empty space and that only a small, concentrated portion (in the center) contains a positive charge.

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  1. Which family does hydrogen belong to?

Nonmetals

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  1. Which family does rubidium and cesium belong to?

A. Alkali Metals

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  1. Which family does germanium and antimony belong to?

C. Metalloids

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  1. What is the Noble Gas configuration of selenium?

B. [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4

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  1. What is the Noble Gas configuration of iodine?

A. [Ne] 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5

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  1. What group is oxygen and sulfur a part of?

C.) Group 16

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There is a shortcut to finding the number of valence electrons for elements (and its atoms) on the periodic table. For example, the 7A above the halogens means every halogen has 7 valence electrons. This shortcut works for almost every element under 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A

A. true B. false

true

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Which family does tin and bismuth belong to?

Post-Transition Metals

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  1. Which atom has a smaller atomic radius, Na or Li? Which explains why? A. Sodium is bigger than Lithium because it has a larger atomic mass. B. Sodium is smaller than Lithium, due to more electron-shielding. C Lithium is smaller than Sodium, due to less electron-shielding. D. Lithium is smaller than Sodium, due to their difference in masses.

Lithium is smaller than Sodium, due to less electron-shielding.

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Which of the following best helps to explain why the atomic radius of Br is smaller than that of K? A. The first ionization energy of K is higher than that of Br. B. The valence electrons in K are in a higher principal energy level than those of Br. C. The valence electrons in K experience a smaller pull by the protons in the nucleus. compared to the valence electrons in Br. K has more protons than Br. D. The valence electrons in Br experience a larger pull by the protons in the nucleus, compared to the valence electron in K

D. The valence electrons in Br experience a larger pull by the protons in the nucleus, compared to the valence electron in K

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  1. Which statement accurately defines the Octet Rule? A. Elements form unstable molecules when surrounded by eight electrons. B. Hydrogen reaches stability when it shares two electrons. C Description of valence electron arrangement in only metals. D When atoms gain or lose valence electrons to obtain a state of stability, like Noble Gases.

D When atoms gain or lose valence electrons to obtain a state of stability, like Noble Gases.

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<ol start="21"><li><p>The picture below is displaying the correct electron dot structure for oxygen (O): A False B. True</p></li></ol>
  1. The picture below is displaying the correct electron dot structure for oxygen (O): A False B. True

False

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  1. Which accurately shows the correct electron configuration of the ion form of P?

C.) p3-: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

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Which accurately shows the correct electron configuration of the ion form of potassium?

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

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  1. The first ionization energy of calcium is 610 kJ/mol. A good estimate for the second ionization energy of calcium is:

C. 1270 kJ/mol

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  1. Which atom has the lowest first ionization energy? A. Selenium (Se) B. Iodine (I) C. Tellurium (Te) D. Bromine (Br)

C. Tellerium

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  1. Which atom has a higher first ionization energy? Beryllium or Boron?

Beryllium

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The electronegativity of an element indicates its relative ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond. Which of the following, from the choices below, has the highest electronegativity? A. Oxygen B. Fluorine C. Chlorine D. Magnesium

B. Fluorine

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  1. Which accurately shows the correct electron configuration of the ion form of Sr?

(C.) SP2+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6

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  1. The first ionization energy of sodium is 495 kJ/mol. A good estimate for the second ionization energy of sodium is:

4560 kJ/mol

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  1. When placed in order of increasing ionic radius, what is the correct order for the species Al3+, S2-, and P3-?

Al3+ < S2- < P3-

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term image

D

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  1. How are salts defined in chemistry? A. Ionic compounds consisting of metals and nonmetals. B. Covalent compounds consisting of nonmetals. C. Seasoning you put on food. D. Metallic compounds resulting from metals bonding.

A. Ionic compounds consisting of metals and nonmetals.

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Two pure elements react to form a compound. One element is a transition metal and the other element is in the oxygen group (oxygen, sulfur, selenium). Which of the following is the most valid scientific claim that can be made about the compound? A. It does not dissolve in water. B. It contains Metallic Bonds. C. It contains Ionic Bonds. D. It contains Covalent Bonds.

.It contains Ionic Bonds.

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  1. When placed in order of decreasing (high to low) ionization Energy, what is the correct order for the elements Al, Cl, and Mg?

CI> Mg > Al

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A correct representation of an ionic solid could be described as having: A. Metallic and nonmetallic atoms bonded covalently in a three-dimensional pattern.

B. Positive and negative ions in fixed alternating positions in a crystalline structure.

C. Mobile valence electrons shared between positive metal ions.

D. Electrons and positive metals ions in fixed positions in a framework

B. Positive and negative ions in a fixed alternating positions in a crystalline structure.

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term image

C

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  1. Which of the following is correct about the ionic compound calcium oxide (CaO)? A. Calcium will take valence electrons from oxygen. When this occurs, calcium becomes negative and increases in size. Conversely, oxygen becomes positive and decreases in size. B. Calcium will give away its valence electrons to oxygen. When this occurs, calcium becomes positive and decreases in size. Conversely, oxygen becomes negative and increases in size. C. Calcium increases its electronegativity in order to form the necessary ionic bonds and to create the ionic compound with oxygen. D. Both B and C.

B. Calcium will give away its valence electrons to oxygen. When this occurs, calcium becomes positive and decreases in size. Conversely, oxygen becomes negative and increases in size.

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  1. Which pair of elements is likely to produce an ionic bond?

A) Li and Cl

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  1. The crystal structure of NaCl is represented in the diagram below. Which statement correctly compares solid NaCI to dissolved NaCI, in terms of electrical conductivity?

A. Solid NaCI contains no freely moving protons that could conduct an electrical current. B. Solid NaCl and dissolved NaCl both contain ions that are held in fixed positions due to strong electrostatic attractions among the ions, making neither a good electrical conductor. C. Solid NaCl does not have freely moving electrons, but dissolved NaCl does allow for electrons to move freely with the help of their metallic bonds. D) Solid NaCI contains no freely moving electrons that could conduct an electrical current, whereas electrons can flow freely in dissolved NaC1, which allows it to be a good conductor of electricity.

D

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term image

B

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  1. How many significant figures are in 2,000.0010?

8

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  1. Round 81,389 to FOUR significant figures.

81390

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  1. Add the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures: 26.2 cm + 71.3937 cm + 55 cm =

C )153 cm

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  1. Multiply the following numbers and round to the appropriate significant figures: 178.446 m x 10.33 m =

C. 1,843 m2

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Which instrument would be the best tool to visualize atoms individually?

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

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84

Almost all of an atom's mass is contained in a tiny, dense region in the center of the atom. Additionally, electrons are not always far from the nucleus. True or False?

true

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<ol start="7"><li><p>Given this picture above, of a beryllium atom, what is incorrect about its drawing? A. There are too many electrons in the drawing. B. The 2s orbital is drawn too large. It should not be drawn over the Is orbital. G, There is a mistake with saying that beryllium has 4 protons (p+). D, There are no incorrect things about this drawing of beryllium.</p></li></ol>
  1. Given this picture above, of a beryllium atom, what is incorrect about its drawing? A. There are too many electrons in the drawing. B. The 2s orbital is drawn too large. It should not be drawn over the Is orbital. G, There is a mistake with saying that beryllium has 4 protons (p+). D, There are no incorrect things about this drawing of beryllium.

D. There are no incorrect things about the berryllium atom

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  1. Subatomic particles with a negative charge are called?

(C. Electrons

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  1. The value that represents the total number of electrons in atoms of an element.

D. Atomic Number

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If the atomic number of an element is 17, what is the element's identity? Additionally, what is its average atomic mass?

(A. The element is Chlorine and its atomic mass is 35.45 g/mol.

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  1. The vertical columns on the periodic table are called.

Family

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<ol start="12"><li><p>Name the element whose mass spectrum is shown above.</p></li></ol>
  1. Name the element whose mass spectrum is shown above.

Ru

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  1. When looking at the elements of the Periodic Table, what can be accurately said about the number below their chemical symbol?

D. This number is called the Average Atomic Mass of the element.

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<p>Average Atomic Mass Equation: The % of EACH isotope&apos;s mass in the element, followed by the summation of these percentages. The mass spectrum for an unknown element is shown above. According to the information in the spectrum, the average atomic mass of the unknown element is closest to:</p>

Average Atomic Mass Equation: The % of EACH isotope's mass in the element, followed by the summation of these percentages. The mass spectrum for an unknown element is shown above. According to the information in the spectrum, the average atomic mass of the unknown element is closest to:

(B. 91 amu

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A Nickel (Ni) atom has the Mass Number of 59. How many neutrons are in this atom? Mass Number =# of protons + # of neutrons

31

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What is the purpose of the Mass Number equation? Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons

To calculate the mass of one atom/isotope.

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<ol start="17"><li><p>Which of the following is correct about Millikan&apos;s Oil Drop Experiment (shown in the picture above)? A. It was used to discover protons. B. It was used to discover that electrons are negatively charged. C. It was used to discover the magnitude of an electron&apos;s charge (9.11 x1031 coulombs) and the mass of an electron (-1.602 x 10-19 kg). D It was used to discover the magnitude of an electron&apos;s charge (-1.602 x 10-19 coulombs) and the mass of an electron (9.11 x 10-31 kg).</p></li></ol>
  1. Which of the following is correct about Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment (shown in the picture above)? A. It was used to discover protons. B. It was used to discover that electrons are negatively charged. C. It was used to discover the magnitude of an electron's charge (9.11 x1031 coulombs) and the mass of an electron (-1.602 x 10-19 kg). D It was used to discover the magnitude of an electron's charge (-1.602 x 10-19 coulombs) and the mass of an electron (9.11 x 10-31 kg).

It was used to discover the magnitude of an electron's charge (-1.602 x 10-19 coulombs) and the mass of an electron (9.11 x 10-31 kg).

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  1. Which of the following is correct regarding the Pauli Exclusion Principle? (A.) There can only be a maximum of two electrons in each orbital. B. Electrons occupying the same orbital must have the same spin to counterbalance the repulsion. C. Every orbital that gets occupied must be from those furthest from the nucleus. D. Electrons orbit in a circular motion, similar to how the planets orbit around the sun.

(A.) There can only be a maximum of two electrons in each orbital.

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  1. The principal quantum number (n) indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbitals. Thus, as n increases..

(C The orbital becomes larger and increases in energy.

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  1. Which of the following is correct regarding the Aufbau Principle? A. One electron has to go in each orbital, before doubling up. B. There can only be a maximum of two electrons in each orbital. C. Electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spins. Each electron first occupies the lowest energy orbital that is available.

Each electron first occupies the lowest energy orbital that is available.

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  1. Which of the following electron configurations is correct for chlorine (Cl)?

(A.) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

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  1. Which of the following electron configurations is correct for silver (Ag)?

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d9

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