ISS unit 3

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articles of confederation

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articles of confederation

first constitution of 1781 by thirteen colonies - symbol of union by giving gov no power over states

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successess of a of c

created treaty of alliance with france - finacial support in war with britain negotiated end american rev. in treaty of paris - end of 7 year war passed nw ordiance of 1787 - nw territories own gov., outlawed slavery there

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weaknessess of a of c

no power to coin money no power over foreign commerce no power to tax no national court system to protect rights no exec. branch to enforce laws amendments only made with support of all 13 states

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shays rebellion

soldiers had no money and farmers had too much debt from loans started with peaceful conventions but lead to attacks attacked and shut down courts sam adams passed laws to kill and unfairly imprison rebels rebellion beat by militia fed. gov counldn't get involved bc a state matter

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the constitution

replaced a of c in 1789 6 articles and themes of supreme law

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executive branch

apply and enforce laws

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legislative branch

make laws

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judicial branch

interpret laws

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theme - limited gov.

gov. whose power is defined and limited by constitution

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theme - republicanism

citizens elect reps. to govern

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theme - checks and balances

branches limit eachother to avoid abuse of power

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theme - federalism

power divided between national and state govs.

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theme - separation of powers

divisions of power between branches

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theme -popular sovereignity

ultimate power resides in people

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great compromise

house of reps is based on the population of a state

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3/5 compromise

slaves count for 3/5 persons to determine rep. in house

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preamble

intro to constitution starts with we the people power lies in people create and keep equality and peace give security and best interest for the public protect rights for citizens keep order and everyone follow the laws

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congress

bicameral legislature (2 systems)

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powers delegated to congress

money war justice regulations foriegn relations constitution changes commerce

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money

collect taxes borrow decide print (new currency or increase money supply)

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war

how to spend declare

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justice

set up fed. courts impeach pres. or officals

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regulations

set up standards of measures admit new states and territories pass immigration laws

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foriegn relations

deal with foriegn treaties

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constitution changes

propose amendments to constitution

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commerce

control business between states control trade with other countries

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powers forbidden to congress

cannot ex post facto law cannot pass bill of attainer cannot suspend writ of habeas corpus cannot grant title of nobility

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ex post facto law

makes an act illegal and applies it to people who have done it before passed

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bill of attainder

law that punishes without a trial

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writ of habeas corupus

protects people from illegal, unfair imprisonment

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how many in house

435

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term in house

2 years

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house age and citizenship

25 years old and 7 years

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duties of house

introduce bills resolve bills serve committees impeach feds. offc. elect pres if electoral college tie

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how many senate

100 2 from each state

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term in senate

6 years

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senate age and citizenship

30 years old and 9 years

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duties of senate

confirm pres appointments adivse and consent to ratify treaties tries impeachment cases helps pass bills (majority vote) veto pres. veto on bill (2/3 vote)

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bicameral

having two branches

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process of law passing

proposal - rep writes bill with support from other reps intro - bill assigned a number and read aloud on house floor committee report - bill sent to committee for review floor debate - house reps debate and amend bill vote - bill is read again and reps vote hand off - bill sent to senate and debate amend and vote compromise - house and senate make conference committee workout compromise bill another vote - house and senate vote on compromise bill president - bill goes to pres, they can sign, ignore, or veto (if veto senate can vote 2/3 to make law)

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leader of house

speaker of house - nancy pelosi

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leader of senate

vice pres - kamala harris

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pres of senate

patrick leahy

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impeachement

charge of wrong doing - intiates trial guilty - removed or barred from office

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pres term

4 years (2 time election)

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pres age and requirements

35 years old born in us live in us 14 years before election

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duties of pres

sign or veto laws commander in chief of military recognize other countries make treaties (senate approve) appoint sc justices (senate approve) appoint cabinet members

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electoral college

538 electors, divided amongst states electors reflect amount of reps and senate of state each elector casts one vote for pres and vice pres canidate who has 270 or more votes wins

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issues with electoral college

winner of popular vote is not guaranteed presidency electors do not have to vote in accord with popular vote any election might be decided in house overepresents small states

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executive order

something the president wants to highlight in society

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3 levels of fed. court system

highest is sc (1 court) court of appeals (13 circuits - 12 regional and 1 for fed. circuit) district courts (94 districts, hear crime and dispute cases)

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how many sc judges

9 justices

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leader of sc

chief justice - John G. Roberts Jr.

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judicial review

ability of sc to oppose any state or fed. laws approved by house or senate

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madison vs marbury

adams appoints justices before his term ends to keep federalist power (john marshall - chief justice) senate approves and marshall is sent to deliver commissions (doesn't deliver 4 including marbury) jefferson and secretarty of state madison ignore appointments marbury goes to sc and petitions writ of mandamus marshall says marbury's arguement goes against constitution judicial review is made

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how does supreme court work

decides if laws congress passed are in conflict with constitution hears appeals from lower courts to clear up meaning of laws can overturn decisions made by lower courts

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fed. court of appeals

hears cases on appeals with no new trials or juries decides if decision made by district courts was right can overturn lower courts decision decisions are final unless case is appealed to sc 3 judges

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justice gorsuch story

scalia dies suddenly during obama obama selects garland to replace senate waits out clock trump appoints gorsuch

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justice kavanaugh story

kennedy retires trump appoints kavanaugh allegations of sexual harrasment during senate hearings

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justice barret coney

ginsburg dies trump appoints and approves barret coney 12 days before term ends

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cabinet members

people appointed by pres to be secretaries of different systems

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dep examples

treasury - printing money, taxes, domestic and international finacial policies, pay bills of us defense - oversees all armed forces labor - protects rights of workers like wages, benefits, safety

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if pres dies who assumes

vice, speaker of house, pres of senate, sec of state, sec of treasury

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