Chemistry

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48 Terms

1

Democritus

Proposed matter was not infinitely divisible Atoms move through empty space Coined the term ATOMOS

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2

ATOMOS

indivisible

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3

Aristotle

Rejected Democritus' idea Believed atoms were made of elements Wrong, but theory held for 2000 years

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4

John Dalton

School Teacher of England Made an Atomic theory

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5

Dalton's atomic theory

Matter is made of small particles called atoms Atoms are indivisible and indestructible Atoms of the same element are identical In reactions, atoms are separated, rearranged, and combined

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6

Atom

The smallest particle of an element that retains the property of the element

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7

JJ Thompson

Discovers electrons

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8

Millikan

Determines the charge of the electron

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9

Rutherford

Determined that Atoms are mostly empty space Discovered the existence of a nucleus Discovers the existence of a proton

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10

Who made the Plum Model?

JJ Thompson

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11

Who made the model involving Gold?

Rutherford

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12

Chadwick

Discovers the Neutron

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13

Niels Boh

Publishes theory of atomic structure Concluded that electrons must orbit the nucleus, protons, and neutrons.

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14

Schrodinger

Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

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15

Qualities of the Proton

In the Nucleus +1 charge 1 amu in mass symbol p+

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16

Qualities of the Neutron

In the Nucleus 0 charge 1 amu in mass symbol n0

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17

Qualities of the Electron

Outside the Nucleus in the Electron Cloud -1 Charge 0 amu in mass symbol e-

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18

Amu

Atomic mass unit

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19

Isotopes

Unique types of an element with different numbers of neutrons, but the same number of protons and electrons

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20

Example of an Isotope

Carbon 12: 6 protons, 6 neutrons, 6 electrons Carbon 13: 6 protons, 7 neutrons, 6 electrons

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21

Atomic number

Is equal to the number of protons of an element Is the identifying number on the periodic table

<p>Is equal to the number of protons of an element Is the identifying number on the periodic table</p>
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22

Atomic Mass

Is the weighted average of the mass of the isotopes for an element Is the decimal number on the periodic table

<p>Is the weighted average of the mass of the isotopes for an element Is the decimal number on the periodic table</p>
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23

Why is atomic mass a weighted average?

This is because different isotopes have different masses

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24

Mass Number

The protons plus the neutrons of an atom

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25

What are the two ways isotopes are displayed?

Name-Mass number AZE Notation

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26

AZE notation

A- Mass number Z- Atomic number E- Chemical Symbol

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27

Subatomic Counts

of protons- Atomic number

of electrons= #of protons

of neutrons+ # of electrons= Mass number

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28

Two types of Nuclear Reactions

Fission Fusion

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29

Nuclear Chemistry

The study of the changes that occur inside the nucleus of an atom

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30

From the nuclei of radiation isotopes

Where do some elements release radiation?

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31

Negatives of Radiation

Cam cause cancer and other illnesses

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32

Positives of Radiation

Can kill parasites in food sources Can be used on food to extend food life Can be used as tracers in research

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33

Nuclear Reaction

What happens when the nucleus of an atom undergoes a change?

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34

When does the atomic number change?

Anytime a particle is absorbed or released for the nucleus of an atom

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35

Qualities of the Alpha Particle

4 amu in mass +2 in charge Very Low Penetration No Biological Hazard unless inhaled Equivalent to a helium 4-nucleus Emitted during Radioactive decay

<p>4 amu in mass +2 in charge Very Low Penetration No Biological Hazard unless inhaled Equivalent to a helium 4-nucleus Emitted during Radioactive decay</p>
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36

Qualities of the Beta Particle

0 amu in mass -1 Charge Low Penetration Biological Hazard to skin and eyes Very Fast Emitted during Radioactive Decay

<p>0 amu in mass -1 Charge Low Penetration Biological Hazard to skin and eyes Very Fast Emitted during Radioactive Decay</p>
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37

Qualities of the Gamma Particle

0 Mass 0 Charge Very High Penetration Biological Hazard to whole body; causes mutations Accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay Does not add or subtract to the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

<p>0 Mass 0 Charge Very High Penetration Biological Hazard to whole body; causes mutations Accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay Does not add or subtract to the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.</p>
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38

What happens during Alpha decay?

A particle made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons is ejected from the nucleus. Essentially subtracts 2 protons and 2 neutrons form an element.

<p>A particle made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons is ejected from the nucleus. Essentially subtracts 2 protons and 2 neutrons form an element.</p>
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39

What happens during Beta Decay?

A neutron is broken down into a proton and a beta particle (which is essentially an electron) and the beta particle is ejected from the nucleus at high speeds. The original Neutron becomes a proton and changes the atomic number. Essentially subtracts a proton from an element.

<p>A neutron is broken down into a proton and a beta particle (which is essentially an electron) and the beta particle is ejected from the nucleus at high speeds. The original Neutron becomes a proton and changes the atomic number. Essentially subtracts a proton from an element.</p>
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40

What happens during Gamma Emission?

The nucleus has too much energy and releases them as electromagnetic waves.

<p>The nucleus has too much energy and releases them as electromagnetic waves.</p>
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41

What is Gamma?

A form of electromagnetic energy that has no mass

<p>A form of electromagnetic energy that has no mass</p>
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42

What determines stability in an atom?

The ratio of protons to neutrons.

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43

Chemical Reaction

A process in which a new substance is created from an already existing substance

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44

How is the atomic mass found?

Calculating the averages of the isotopes of an element.

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45

What is the difference between a chemical reaction and a Nuclear reaction?

A chemical reaction involves the redistribution of electrons in an atom to create a new substance, as we know the electron is outside of the nucleus of an atom. A nuclear reaction is the change of the nucleus of an atom, involving protons and electrons.

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46

Radioactivity

The process in which some substances spontaneously emit radiation

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47

Radioactive Decay

A spontaneous process in which unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation

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48

Why are some atoms radioactive and others are not?

This is because Radioactive atoms emit radiation because their nuclei is unstable.

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