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AP Human Geography




Created in 2022 for P. Hammond's AP Human Geography course.

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63 Terms


all of the learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, and objects of a group of people (3.1)

Cultural Hearth

the area in which a unique culture of specific traits develop EX: Harlem for Hip Hop (3.1)

10 Major Culture Realms

  1. Anglo American

  2. Latin American

  3. European

  4. Islamic

  5. Sub-Saharan African

  6. Slavic

  7. Indian

  8. Sino-Japanese

  9. Southeast Asian

  10. Austral European (3.1)

Cultural Landscape

the visible reflection of a culture on the environment EX: parks, neighborhoods, sacred places (3.1)

Folk Culture vs. Popular Culture

Folk culture- traditional, slow-moving Popular culture- modern, fast-moving (3.1)

Cultural Transition Zones

where cultures don't necessarily fit neatly within assigned borders (3.1)


intensified interactions among people, governments, and companies worldwide (3.1)

Negative Impacts of Globalization

three examples:

  1. loss of folk culture

  2. jobs go overseas

  3. cultural traits are pushed onto other cultures

Centripetal Forces

factors that pull people together and unify (3.1)

Centrifugal Forces

factors that force people apart (3.1)

Cultural Convergence

when cultures combine and become the same; caused by the spread of popular culture and the loss of folk culture (3.1)

Cultural Divergence

when cultures split; often along rural vs. urban line (3.1)


behaviors that are strongly discouraged by a culture EX: talking about menstruation-- Turning Red movie (3.1)

Gendered Spaces

spaces that are segregated based upon gender EX: restrooms, weight rooms (3.1)


when an ethnic/immigrant group moves and adopts practices of the large group (3.1)


when an ethnic/immigrant group moves and can no longer be distinguished from the large group (3.1)


coexistence of several cultures in one society with the ideal that all cultures are valued and worthy (3.1)


conflict between cultures becomes harsh, xenophobic, and ethnocentric (3.1)

Cultural Relativism

refers to not judging a culture to our own standards of what is right or wrong, strange or normal; instead, trying to understand cultural practices of other groups in its own cultural context (3.1)

Relocation Diffusion

when people migrate and carry their cultural traits with them (3.1)

Expansion Diffusion

the spread of a cultural trait outward from where it originated (3.1)

Hierarchical Diffusion

spread of culture from the most interconnected, wealthy, or important places or people (3.1)

Reverse Hierarchical Diffusion

sometime things diffuse from the lower class to the upper class, or rural to urban, or unconnected to connected. quite literally the reverse of hierarchical diffusion (3.1)

Contagious Diffusion

when a cultural trait spreads continuously from its origin; spread through contact; can be extremely rapid (3.1)

Stimulus Diffusion

occurs when people in a culture adapt an underlying idea or process from another culture, but modify it because they reject one trait (3.1)


scientists who study language (3.2)


largest language family in the world; includes languages that related to Indo-Iranian and European cultures (3.2)


variations in accent, grammar, usage, and spelling EX: AAVE or African American Vernacular English (3.2)

4 Major Globalized Languages

English, French, Spanish, Arabic (3.2)

Lingua Franca

common language learned and used by people who do not share the same primary language EX: international businessmen tend to learn Mandarin and English, as they are both very common business languages (3.2)


language that emerges when two or more languages have extensive contact with each other, often due to trade EX: "Spanglish," formed from contact between Spanish and English by a bilingual speaker (3.2)

Creole Language

pidgin language that develops more extensive language operations and becomes the primary language of the people in a region EX: Swahili or Afrikaans (3.2)

Time-Space Convergence

also called time-space compression in Unit 1; the correlated decrease in time needed for transportation to the increase in technology (3.3)

Fake News

fake, often sensational, report disseminated under the guise of an authentic news report with the goal of misleading consumers of the content. elected officials have also used this term to describe things that are unfavorable to them (3.3)

Alternative Facts

a statement that can be proven false, but some individuals continue to insist are true (3.3)


the practice of posting deliberately inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in social media in order to provoke or agitate (3.3)


an example of remote sensing; used to reveal evidence of an ancient civilization in the Amazon Basin (3.3)

Hearths of the 4 Major Religions

Christianity- Jerusalem, Israel Islam- Mecca, Saudi Arabia Buddhism- Nepal, Northeastern India Hinduism- Punjab area (Northern India/Pakistan) (3.4)

Founders of the 4 Major Religions

Christianity- Jesus Christ Islam- Muhammad Buddhism- Siddharta Gautama, "The Buddha." Hinduism- None Specified (3.4) optional information

Scriptural Texts of the 4 Major Religions

Christianity- The Bible Islam- The Qur'an Buddhism- Tripitaka Hinduism- The Vedas (3.4) optional information

Ethnic Religion

a religion that you are born into EX: Judaism, Hinduism (3.4)

Universalizing Religion

a religion that attempts to appeal to all people; proselytizing EX: Christianity, Buddhism, Islam (3.4)


belief that all objects and natural events have a discrete spirit and conscious life (3.4)

US Religious Patterns

70.6% Christian 22.8% Unaffiliated <2% for each other religion (3.4)


individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through expansion diffusion EX: Sufis (3.4)

3 Main Diffusion Causes

colonialism, imperialism, and trade


religious journey taken by a person to a sacred place of their religion EX: Hajj (largest annual) and Kumbh Mela (largest) (3.4)


the blending of cultures and ideas from different places; especially religions (3.4)


a country whose government is run by religious leaders through the use of religious laws EX: Iran (Islamic) and Vatican City (Catholic) (3.4)