Philosophy Test #3

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Kierkegaard

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Kierkegaard

Faith and reason in tension; faith is irrational; faith is higher than reason; leap of faith.

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Hegel

Reason above faith

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Locke

Reason purifies faith

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Ayers

Something is true is you can verify it or falsify it. Reason is truth, faith is nonsense

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Gould

Reason (science) and faith as separate spheres;

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Augustine & Anselm

Faith enlightens reason

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The relationship between faith and reason according to Aquinas

Faith perfects/completes reason

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Kierkegaard’s notion of the teleological suspension of the ethical.

Fulfilling rational and moral obligations to Isaac will never bring Abraham into proper relationship with the Creator. Faith is a higher goal than ethics.

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Averroes on double truth.

There are certain things that are true from reason’s perspective and faith’s perspective. These truths may contradict themselves

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Natural Theology

the belief that we can discern truths about God through thoughtful observation of nature.

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Revealed theology

theology through scripture and holy teaching.

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Logical positivism and its verification principle of meaning (VPM); the problem with VPM.

Twentieth century theology where propositions have meaning only if their truth value can be verified by logic and/or empirical evidence.

The verification principle of meaning states that a proposition has meaning only if it is true by definition or is potentially verifiable or falsifiable by empirical methods.

You can’t verify the VPM to say that it is true.

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Theism

the belief in God or gods.

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Polytheism

the belief in many gods.

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monotheism

the belief in just one God

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henotheism

this is when a tribe or people believe in one God, but accept that other nations have other gods

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pantheism

this is the belief that there is a spirit of life and a spiritual world, but there is no belief in a personal God

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panenthensim

this is a combination of both monotheism and pantheism that says that the spiritual energy of the universe comes together to become a single, personal God. God is distinct from the rest of the world but never separate from the world. They live in a codependent relationship

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agnosticism

this is when a person is unsure about whether a god or sacred reality exists

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Atheism

this is a firm belief that there are no gods, God, or a sacred reality

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Thomas Aquinas' 5 ways

  1. Argument from motion (change) - Motion of the universe had to be caused by God.

  2. Argument from causation - uncaused cause is God. - Everything that exists needs to have a creator. Must be unlimited and the cause of all things.

  3. Argument from contingent existence. - Everything created is contingent; meaning that it is not necessary.

Species of cosmological argument

  1. Arguments from degrees of perfection - there must be a most perfect being (esp. as a source of moral goodness. - There is perfection and everything is some degree of perfection.

  2. theological argument - The world has a cause and specific nature and order that it lives by.

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God as an absolute being

Never begins to exist but simply exists. This makes him a good candidate for the question of who is the ultimate cause of all things.

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The Kalam cosmological argument

This view states that the universe could not have existed for an infinite amount of past time.

  1. The cosmos as a whole (multiverse or universe) began to exist

  2. Anything that begins to exist has a cause outside of itself

  3. The whole of the cosmos has a cause outside of itself

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Moral Evil

evil depends on the free actions of libertarian agents

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Natural Evil

evil is not brought about by free choices

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Aneslm's ontological argument

God is the most perfect being. The most perfect being must have the quality of necessary existence, so it has to exist. If he is perfect then he must be in all possible worlds.

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Logical problem of evil

evil states that for every evil event, God could have stopped it.

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Evidential problem of evil

evil states that the existence of God is very very unlikely given the amount and extent of evil in the history of the actual world.

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Cosmological argument

Anything that exists must exist either dependently (be caused) or independently (be uncaused).

The cosmos and all in it doesn’t exist independently.

The causal chain can’t be infinite. (2nd law of thermodynamics)

God doesn’t depend on anything else in order to exist.

Therefore God is the 1st Cause of everything else.

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Objections to the cosmological argument

If God made the cosmos, who made God? A: God is uncaused (an absolute being)

There’s no time before the big bang for a cause to happen! A: How can nothing become everything w/ no cause? The cause of time is timeless.

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Teleological argument

The cosmos displays complex, purposive order Complex, purposive order = design Where there is a design, there is a designer The designer of the cosmos is God

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Objections to the teleological argument

Natural selection, multiverse.

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Moral argument

All normal humans have a moral sense (a sense of right and wrong)

Cultures and civilizations actress time and space have agreed on certain basics of morality (e.g., murder is wrong; hospitality is right)

If morality is simply by evolution or social contract, then it’s relative.

If it’s platonic, then impersonal absolute. (Law without a Law-giver)

If it’s theistic, then personal absolute

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Problem of evil

If God is all powerful he can get rid of all evil. If God is all-good, he wants to get rid of all evil. But evil continues to exist Therefore, God is either not all powerful or not all-good or doesn’t exist at all.

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Classical theism

Perfect being is infinite-personal (rational, volitional, benevolent, active). Infinite-personal being freely creates the world of finite beings. Infinite-personal being is immutable & impassible Eternity = timelessness (“Eternal now”)

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Pantheism

Perfect being is infinite- nonpersonal (beyond reason/will, good/evil, subject/object of action; it just is) Infinite beings necessarily includes the world as finite beings. Infinite being is immutable & impassible Eternity = timelessness (“eternal now”)

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process theism (panentheism)

Perfect being is finite-personal (rational, volitional, benevolent, active.) Finite – personal being necessarily creates the world of finite beings. Finite- personal being is perfectly mutable & passible. Eternity = everlastingness

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Omnipotence

all-powerful

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Omniscience

all-knowing

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Can God do anything?

Logical possibilities: can God make square circles or 2+2=5

Moral impossibilities: Can God break his word? Can God sin?

Metaphysical impossibilities: can god erase the past or make a stone that he can’t lift?

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Refined definitions of omnipotence

God can do whatever is possible

God can do whatever is consistent with his nature

God is the ongoing provider and governor of all real power

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Does God know everything?

Logical impossibilities: Does God know what sound the color orange makes?

Moral Impossibilities: Does God know what it is like to sin?

Metaphysical impossibilities: Does God know what it is like to be me?

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Redefined definitions of omniscience

God knows whatever is possible to know

God knows whatever is consistent with his nature to know

God is the ongoing provider and governor of all real knowledge

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Boethianism

God knows everything that will happen because all times are present to him. Thus, he foreknows our choices but doesn’t predetermine them.

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Molinism

God knows everything that would happen in all possible worlds, including our free choices. He actualizes one possible world & so foreknows what we’ll freely do.

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Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? No & no

Process theism and open theism: God knows whatever can be known, but future free-willed choices can’t be known as anything but “maybe” because the future can’t exist yet. God either can’t (process theism) or won’t (open theism) force our choices.

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Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? Yes & yes

Predeterminism: God knows everything because he is the ultimate cause of everything. Humans are free to do what they want, but God determines what they want. God holds us responsible because we are the direct cause of our actions.

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Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? Yes & no

Boethianism and Molinism

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