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German Confederation

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German Confederation

Association of German states established at the Congress of Vienna that replaced the Holy Roman Empire and allied independent German states.

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Otto von Bismarck

the politician most instrumental in the unification of Germany

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Chancellor

The highest ranking position that Otto von Bismark was appointed

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Realpolitik

Bismark skillfully acted upon realistic politics that benefited the states

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Franco-Prussian War

sparked by Bismark after releasing a doctored telegram insulting Napoleon II

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Second Reich

the German became known as this after the victory over France

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Kaiser Wilhelm II

The new leader of Germans in World War 1

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Reichstag ( upper house ) Bundesrat ( lower house )

Bismark and Wilhelm established a two house legislature called

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Industrialization

One of the effects of unification allowing Germany to become a military economic power

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Kulturkampf

Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church

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How Bismark ended up fighting socialism

Adopting social welfare programs

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after the death of Wilhelm I..

Wilhelm II became kaiser and asked Bismark to resign

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Guiseppe Mazzini

A Nationalist leader that founded Young Italy to work for the unified Italian republic to help trade and industry

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Kingdom of Sardinia

the new center for the Italian Movement

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Victor Emmanuel

A monarch who wanted more power by taking Italian states

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Count Camillo Cavour

Prime minister of Sardinia who made war with Austria to take northern Italian states.

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Giuseppe Garibaldi

Worked with Cavour in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies to create an Italian republic and raised an army of 1,000 red shirts

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anarchists

violently sabotaged the constitutional monarchy of the new Italian state.

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Ethiopia

where government worked to expand the empire into in northern africa

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Emigration

used by many Italians as an escape from difficulties faced in italy

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Prince von Metternich

politician who tried to suppress liberal ideas and banned the word constitution

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Franz Joseph

became emperor of Austria and ruled until WWI

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Ferenc Deak

moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out the Dual of Monarchy of Austria Hungary

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Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

Austria and Hungary are combined under Francis Joseph I

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Ottoman Empire

multinational empire, stretching from Eastern Europe to North Africa and Middle East

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in the Balkans

Serbia and Greece won autonomy and others staged revolts against ottoman rule

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Western Europeans viewed the Balkan region as..

a powder keg that set off WWI

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Peter the Great

expanded the naval power of Russia by conquering the Baltic and black seas.

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Catherine the Great

ruled as an enlightened despot

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Serfs

name for the majority of Russians bc they were laborers for wealthy

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tsar

what Russian autocrats were called meaning caesar or emperor in Russian

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Zemstovs

an land committees set up by Alexander II

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Pogroms

violent government-sanctioned attackes against Russian Jewish

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Nicholas II

the leader Russia began to industrialize under in 1890

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Russo-Japanese War

War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.

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Bloody Sunday

peaceful march by russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds

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October Manifesto

Issued by Nicholas II and granted full civil rights to people and opened up the Duma

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Duma

Russian national legislature

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Peter Stolypin

appointed prime minister by Nicholas II to implement necessary reforms

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Rotten boroughs

rural town in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters

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Reform Act of 1832

An Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom

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electorate

body of people allowed to vote

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secret ballot

votes cast without announcing them publicly

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Queen Victoria

ruler of britain empire for 64 years and emodied social values of the age

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Benjamin Disraeli

forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party

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William Gladstone and Disraeli

alternated as prime minister in 1868

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Parliamentary Democracy

a form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature

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free trade

trade between countries without restrictions

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Abolitionist Movement

Movement to end slavery in 1807

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capital offense

crime punishable by death

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penal colonies

settlements for convicts

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Emmeline Pankhurst

British suffragette and founder of the Woman's Social and Political Union.

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absentee landlord

one who owns a large estate but does not live there

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Homerule

self-government

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Napolean III

ruled Frances Second Empire

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Suez Canal

a canal linking the mediterranean with the red sea and the indian ocean

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Franco-Prussian War

This was a major war between the French and the Germans in 1871 that brought about the unification of Germany. It was caused by Otto Von Bismarck altering a telegram from the Prussian King to provoke the French into attacking Prussia, thus hoping to get the independent German states to unify with Prussia (which they did, thus creating Germany).

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provisional

a government Republicans in Paris formed to end war and minimize losses

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Third Republic

the two house legislature republic that was established in France after the downfall of Napoleon III and remained for 70 years

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premier

held the most power in thenew government that consisted of a two-house legislature which elected the president

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coalition

alliences among various parties to form majorities capable of governing

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Alfred Dreyfus

a Jewish army officer involved in a scandal accused of being a German spy

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libel

a published false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation; a written defamation.

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Zionism

a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine

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