GCSE AQA Geography- Paper 2 Case Studies

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State one feature of Rio that is of regional importance

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State one feature of Rio that is of regional importance

The rapid growth from the last 50 years

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State one feature of Rio that is of national importance

Rio is the cultural capital of Brazil

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State one feature of Rio that is of international importance

Hosted the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 olympics

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Give two reasons for Rio’s growth

Natural increases and migration

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What percent of urban growth is due to migration?


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Give two social opportunities presented in Rio. Give four stats, two for Rio comparing to the whole of Brazil

Life expectancy in Rio de Janeiro is at 77. Compared to Brazil’s 73, due to improved health care. 95% of the population has mains water supply in Rio compared to only 65% of the rural population.

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Give two economic opportunities presented in RIo

Rio is the top visitor destination in South America, and Rio is a major centre for banking, finance and insurance.

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Give 3 social challenges presented in Rio

Only half of all children continue their education beyond 14, 37% of water is lost through leaky pipes and illegal access, and city wide black outs are frequent due to electricity shortage

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Give 3 economic challenges presented in Rio

Unemployment rates in favelas are over 20%, Average incomes are less than £75 a month and about 1/3 of Rio’s workers don’t have a formal contract, so don’t pay tax.

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Give 3 environmental challenges presented in Rio

Air pollution estimated to cause 5000 deaths per year, Guanabara bay is heavily polluted and waste dumped in the water system causing cholera.

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What is the Favela Bairro Project?

A site and service scheme where the local authority provides land and services for residents to build homes

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Name three improvements that were made in Favela Bairro

A pacifying police unit (UPP) set up reducing crime, paved and formally named roads and hillsides secured to prevent landslides.

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Name three problems that still remained after the Favela Bairro Project

Lack of maintenance for the new infrastructure, rents rise in improved favelas and more training needed to improve literacy and employment

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Give two reasons why the Favela Bairro Project could be seen as successful

Quality of life, mobility and employment prospects improved in the favelas, and recognised by the UN as a model to be used in other Brazilian cities.

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Give two reasons why Bristol is important to the UK

It has two universities and is culture and entertainment filled

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Give two reasons why Bristol is important internationally

50 countries represented in Bristol’s population and it links to Europe via ferry and the USA via airport

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Give two positives of national and international migration on Bristol.

It enriches the city’s cultural life and helps to balance the aging population.

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Give two negatives of national and international migration on Bristol.

Pressures on housing and employment and the challenge of providing an education for children whose first language is not English.

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Give two social opportunities presented in Bristol

More people under 16 than of pensionable age, and has two professional football teams and a rugby union team

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Give two economic opportunities presented in Bristol

Aardman animations (creators of Wallace and Gromit) was founded there, and ministry of procurement agency was established there, increasing employment rates

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Give two environmental opportunities presented in Bristol

Every primary pupil planted a tree to create more green space, and 90% of population live within 350m of parkland or waterways

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Give two social problems presented within Bristol

Over 1300 crimes a year and life expectancy of 78 years

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Give two environmental problems within Bristol

Derelict industrial buildings and new housing developments in rural areas

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Give two reasons for the Temple Quarter Regeneration

Very run down and poor first impression of city was poor

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What were the three main features of the Temple Quarter Regeneration

Enterprise Zone Status, improved access in and around Bristol and New bridge across the River Avon

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What is Enterprise zone status (think Temple Quarter Regeneration)

The offering of a range of incentives to businesses to move to the area, encouraging economic growth

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What does the new bridge in Bristol give access to?

The new Bristol Arena

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What is Freiburg?

An urban sustainable city in Germany

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Give one way in which waste is managed sustainably in Freiburg

A biogas digester for organic good and garden waste is collected weekly

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Give one sustainable energy source in Germany

Solar panels producing 10million kilowatts of electricity per year

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Give one way that Freiburg manages water conservation

Compulsory roof gardens

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Give one way that Freiburg creates green space

40% of the city is forested

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Give three urban transport schemes in Freiburg

Low fares on public transport, a vast tram network and reduction of car use.

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Give three urban transport schemes in Freiburg

Restriction on vehicle use, limiting car sales and expansion of public transport system

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How does tourism contribute to Jamaica’s economy?

Contributed 24% of Jamaica’s GDP and brings an income of US$2 billion each year

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How does tourism contribute to Jamaica’s infrastructure?

Increased investment on the north coast but some parts of the island remain isolated

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How has tourism in Jamaica contributed to their quality of life?

On the Northern tourist areas of Montego Bay and Ocho Rio’s, QOL and SOL is high, but large numbers of people live nearby with very poor QOL and SOL

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How has tourism affected the environment in Jamaica

Excessive waste and harmful emissions, but increased investment in landscaping and conservation.

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How has tourism affected employment in Jamaica?

Provides 200,000 jobs (directly and indirectly) and employees can learn new skills to be shared

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Give two ways in which Nigeria is important in Africa

Has huge potential to help lead the way in the development of the whole continent, and had the highest GDP in 2022

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Give two ways that Nigeria is important globally

Has the highest GDP growth from 2010-2015, and ranks as the fifth largest contributor to UN peacekeeping around the world.

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Give a short summary of the political context of Nigeria

  • Exploited and enslaved by European countries

  • Gained independence in 1960

  • Following this was a series of dictatorships and a civil war

  • Stable government since 1999

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Give a short summary of the social context in Nigeria

  • multiethnic and multi-faith country

  • Civil war was ethnic based

  • Economic inequality between north and south creates tensions, affected economic growth

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Give a short summary of the cultural context in Nigeria

  • rich and varied culture

  • Nigerian music enjoyed worldwide

  • Nigerian cinema (Nollywood)= second largest film industry in the world

  • Nigerian football team won the African Cup of Nations 3 times

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Give a short summary of the environmental context of Nigeria

  • natural environment form a series of bands

  • Sahel and Sahara Desert in the North

  • Pests and disease affect parts of Nigeria

  • Deforestation 14% loss

  • Oil industry caused degradation

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How has the agriculture/primary sector changed from 1999-2012 in Nigeria?

It had decreased over time from around 3 quarters to 1 third.

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How has the industry/secondary sector changed from 1999-2012 in Nigeria?

It has increased from around one eight to one third

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How has the service/tertiary sector changed from 1999-2012 in Nigeria

It has increased from around one sixth to one third

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What is a TNC (Transnational Corperation)

A large company which operates in several countries

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Give three benefits of Shell Oil on Nigeria

  • makes major contributions in taxes and revenue

  • Provides 65,000 jobs directly

  • Gives 91% of Shell contracts to Nigerian companies

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Give two negatives of Shell Oil on Nigeria

  • Oil spills cause water pollution and soil degradation.

  • Frequent oil spills send toxic fumes into the air

  • Oil theft and sabotage reduce production levels

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What are the main products which Nigeria exports?

Crude oil, natural gas, rubber, cocoa and cotton

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Who did Nigeria mainly trade with following independence?

The UK

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Who does Nigeria trade with now?

A variety of countries in the EU as well as the largest economies of the USA, China and India

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Name the 5 big groups which Nigeria are a part of

African Union, CEN-SAD, ECOWAS, OPEC and the UN

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Which two groups that Nigeria are a part of promote collective self-efficiency and economic unity?


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What is the objective of the group OPEC?

To stabilise the price of oil

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What percentage of aid given to African countries does Nigeria receive?


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The UK Department of International Development has funded a ______________ programme

Health and HIV programme

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The USAID-funded community care in Nigeria project provides support packages for ____________________

Orphans and vulnerable children

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Why has official aid to Nigeria delivered through the government been less successful than aid delivered directly to communities?

Due to corruption

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Name four environmental problems caused by rapid and unregulated growth in Nigeria

  • harmful pollutants go directly into open drains and water channels

  • Chemical waste disposed of on nearby land

  • 70-80% of Nigeria’s forests destroyed

  • Desertification

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Despite clear improvements many people in Nigeria are still poor. Name 3 services they still have limited access to.

Safe water, sanitation and reliable electricity

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What does Nigeria have an over dependence on?

Oil, which could become an issue in the future

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Why is the gap between rich and poor people becoming wider in Nigeria?

Due to corruption and because oil wealth has not been used effectively.

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What is Torr quarry?

One of eight limestone quarries on the Mendip Hills

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On estimate, how much does Torr Quarry contribute to the local economy each year?

£15 million

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How is Torr Quarry being made more sustainable?

The quarry is being restored to create wildlife lakes. And they monitor noise, vibration, airborne emissions and water quality

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What has lesser impact on the environment: Deepening Torr quarry or widening it?

Deepening, as it means that the surrounding countryside are not destroyed.

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Why are airports important to the economy of the UK?

They create global links, provide jobs and boost economic growth

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Give two reasons why Heathrow airport should expand

  • increase air port capacity

  • Provide 77,000 new jobs

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Give two reasons why Heathrow airport should NOT expand

  • noise and air pollution

  • Village of Longford destroyed

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What is an alternative to creating a new runway at Heathrow airport?

Increasing the length of existing runways or continue to work at full capacity.

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What are the plans at Liverpool2?

A new deep water quay on the River Mersey created, to cost £300 million.

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Give three benefits of Liverpool2.

  • Creating 5000 jobs

  • Boosting economy of North West

  • Double the ports capacity

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What is the SW super highway project?

A £2 billion road widening project, making the entire road dual carriage ways.

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Give two advantages of SW Super Highway

Creates jobs and cuts traffic congestion

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Give two disadvantages of SW Super Highway

Destruction of habitat and increased car use

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What is HS2?

A high speed rail to connect London with Birmingham

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State 3 potential benefits of HS2

Reduce pressure from existing infrastructure, reducing journey times and reducing the north south divide (maybe)

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State 4 downsides of HS2

More likely to encourage jobs in London, Extremely expensive, destruction of habitats and villages and increased carbon emissions.

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What is the name and purpose of the project started in 2004 in Peru?

Camisea project used to exploit natural gas from the Amazon.

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Give three benefits of the Camisea Project.

  • could save Peru up to 4 billion US dollars in energy costs.

  • Could bring Peru 34 billion US dollars over the span of the project.

  • Provides employment opportunities.

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Give three disadvantages of the Camisea Project.

  • causes deforestation, decreasing biodiversity.

  • Could impact the lives of several indigenous tribes.

  • Clearing of routes for pipelines leads to landslides and pollution.

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What is the name of the isolated community in the Andes Mountains of Peru that we have studied?


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What is the sustainable energy scheme in Chambamontera, Peru?

The construction of a micro-hydro scheme supported by the charity Practical Action.

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Why was the sustainable energy scheme in Chambamontera needed?

As development has been restricted due to lack of heat, light and power.

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Give two economic benefits of the scheme in Chambamontera.

  • Reduction in rural to urban migration

  • Business development is possible

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Give two environmental benefits of the scheme in Chambamontera.

  • Regulated flow has reduced risk of flooding.

  • Reduced deforestation due to reduced need to burn wood as a source of heat.

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Give two social benefits of the scheme in Chambamontera.

  • improved health care due to refrigeration for the storage of medicines.

  • Improved education due to the access to light and potential internet.

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