OT 510: Exam 2

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Ethics

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Prof. Lunn

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Ethics

-Clinical decisions based on professional judgment

  • Involve personal and social morals and values

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Dilemma

not a right/wrong answer

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Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics

-Common set of values and principles

-Promotes high standards of behavior and professional responsibility

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Principle 1

Beneficence

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Beneficence

-Demonstrates concern and well-being for the recipients of services

The term implies kindness & mercy Fair and equitable treatment Fair and reasonable fees Advocacy for the recipients Respect for differences

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Principle 2

Nonmaleficence

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Nonmaleficence

-Do no harm to the recipient(s) of services.

Physically Socially Financially Sexually Emotionally It involves "non-action to avoid harm"

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Principle 3

Autonomy and Confidentiality

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Autonomy and Confidentiality

-Respect the right of the individual to self-determination

Collaborate with recipients, including family members and caregivers

Inform recipients of potential risks of interventions

Respect recipients decisions

Protect all information (HIPAA)

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Principle 4

Social Justice

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Social Justice

-Providing services in a fair and equitable manner

Act according to AOTA's standards to ensure the common good

Educate the public about OT's value in promoting health and wellness,especially on a community-wide basis

Advocate for fair treatment for everyone, as well as adequate resources for all

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Principle 5

Procedural Justice

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Procedural Justice

-Compliance with Laws and Policies

Includes awareness of and compliance with institutional, local, state, federal, and international laws and policies, as well as AOTA documents

Therapists must hold appropriate credentials to practice OT

Take responsibility for continuing education

Ensure that duties assigned match credentials

Provide appropriate supervision

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Principle 6

Veracity

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Veracity

-Duty to tell the truth

Qualifications, education, training, and competence must be represented accurately in all forms of communication

Disclose any situation that may be a conflict of interest

Document in a timely manner and according to law

Accept responsibilities for own actions

Do not plagiarize the work of others

Do not participate in false claims about patients, other employees, or students

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Principle 7

Fidelity

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Fidelity

Treat colleagues and other professionals with fairness, discretion, and integrity

Protect confidential information about colleagues, employees, and students

Enforce Code of Ethics among professions

Report illegal or unethical conduct

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Occupational therapy values

-Altruism -Equality -Freedom -Justice -Dignity -Truth -Prudence

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Process of Ethical reasoning

-Identify the ethical dilemma -Gather relevant facts about the case -Apply ethical theories and guiding principles to analyze the case -Problem solve practical alternatives

  • Decide on an action -Act on that choice -Evaluate how to prevent or cope with the dilemma should you encounter it again

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Ethical Jurisdiction

-AOTA -NBCOT -State Regulatory Boards

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US Healthcare System

A highly regulated system -US spends more money per capita on healthcare expenditures than any other country -No "perfect system" yet

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Prior to WWII

little health insurance—people paid for services "out of pocket" or bartered.

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1930's

Indemnity insurance emerged (retrospective—fee for service)

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1945

First Health Maintenance Organization—however, it did not dominate until the 1980's (prospective).

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1960's

Medicare and Medicaid established

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1970's

healthcare costs skyrocketed

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1980's

Medicare Reform (Diagnoses related group's)

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1990's

Market-driven healthcare versus healthcare reform

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Balanced Budget Act

1997: drastic cuts in Medicare reimbursement, including areas of occupational therapy service.

2000: restoration of some Medicare benefits due to patient, family, and provider pressure.

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Medicare

Federally funded program covers: -People over the age of 65 -Medically disabled (all ages) -End-stage renal disease

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Medicare Parts

Part A inpatient hospitalization SNF's-skilled nursing facility HHC- home health care Hospice Care- end of life care

Part B physician and outpatient services HHC- home health care DME- durable Medical Equipment

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Medicaid

-Insurance for people who are unable to afford health care (must meet requirements) -Federally and state-funded -Varies by state with coverage/usage

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SCHIP

State Children's Health Insurance Program

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State Children's Health Insurance Program

-Created in 1997 via BBA -Health insurance to children and some parents who are not eligible for Medicaid -Federally and state-funded

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IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

-Federally and state-funded school-based program -Focus of care in the school system -Highest % of OTs work in school-based programs -Partnership between state and federal governments and school systems

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Managed Care Organization

A form of healthcare coverage

The member's care is managed by controlling the use of services, which in turn helps contain (keep down) COSTS.

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Workman's Compensation

-State-run programs -Pay for healthcare related to a work injury (e.g., PT, OT, medical services) -Pay for medical services, salaries, vocational training, and for disability if determined by an MD

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Uninsured

Approximately 46 million people in 2008

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Implications

-OT's must be knowledgeable about reimbursement systems -Documentation is crucial -Need to be your client's advocate in dealing with third-party payers -Must stay up-to-date on regulations

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Health-Care Organization Accreditation

-Nonprofit organizations serve to obtain quality care and services to protect the consumer using their services. -These organizations are called Accreditation Agencies. -These agencies set standards involving: delivery of services, quality care, documentation, and patient satisfaction/education.

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JCAHO

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations

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Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations

-JCAHO evaluates the organization's compliance with the standards established -The organization being evaluated must comply with essential standards in order to receive Medicare reimbursement -Hospitals utilize this organization by choice

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NCQA

National Commission for Quality Assurance

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National Commission for Quality Assurance

-Assesses and reports on the quality of managed care plans -Voluntary service for MCO's -Standards relate to member satisfaction, quality of care, access, and services provided

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CARF

Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities

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Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities

Voluntary organization for rehabilitation providers

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National organizations

AOTA, NBCOT

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State organizations

State Regulatory Board, NHOTA

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AOTA

American Occupational Therapy Association

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American Occupational Therapy Association

  • responsible for writing, revising, and enforcing the OT code of Ethics "...responsible for guiding and developing occupational therapy's standards and code of ethics and for defining the profession's scope of practice" (Brayman, 2009, pg. 231). -Began in 1917 as NSPOT and changed to AOTA in 1927 -Includes OT's, COTA's, and OT students

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HIPAA

part of the OT code of ethics

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NBCOT

National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy

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National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy

Credentials OT's and COTA's to be able to work within the profession

An examination is taken after a master's education and 6 months of fieldwork

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State Regulatory Board

After passing the certification exam (NBCOT) an OT/COTA can apply for licensure within the state in which they want to practice.

Each state has specific criteria regarding the duties and responsibilities of the OT/COTA.

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NHOTA

-New Hampshire Occupational Therapy Association -Advances the profession within the state -Provides continuing education opportunities -Independent from AOTA, but they collaborate

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ACOTE

Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education

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Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education

-Works within AOTA -Sets standards for OT and COTA educational programs -Evaluates programs on a regular basis

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Education, Credentialing and Licensing

-Certified at a professional level -Masters Degree -Accredited program by ACOTE -6 months of fieldwork- Level II -Certification by NBCOT -State licensed -Evaluation and intervention -Supervises COTA

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Competence

-Practitioners are expected to be competent when they provide services -How does someone become competent? -on-going supervision -continuing education -experience -observation (of others and by others) -demonstration -communication

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Levels of competence

Practitioners can obtain advance certification in specialty areas: CHT- certified hand therapist CPE- certified professional ergonomist SCLV- specialty certification in low vision

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Important rule

If you don't know what you're doing or why you're doing it, don't do it!

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Communication

-Is key in all that you do as an occupational therapist -Influences patient care -Influences peer interactions -Influences all roles you acquire

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OT/COTA Team

-Supervision -Service Competency -Collaboration

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Supervision

-Depends on skill, experience, and knowledge -Promotes learning, autonomy, and professional growth -Includes respect and trust -Communicates needs and type of supervision (also regulated by each state)

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Service Competency

-Demonstration and verification of skills and knowledge of treatment

This can be done by:

  • co-treatment

  • observation

  • individual education

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Collaboration

-clear understanding of each other's role -agreement about each other's role -effective communication -respect for one another -clear expectations -dependability

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A successful team

-Shared mission/goals -Clear communication -Clear expectations -Mutual respect -Open-mindedness -Effective support and resources

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Interdisciplinary

-professionals may do an assessment together, with each one looking for discipline specific info. communication is usually done via team meeting -Team members have shared responsibility for providing services and support one another's goals for treatment. Separate assessments, then shared results to develop integrated and coordinated care.

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Multidisciplinary

-several disciplines come together and work with a patient individually vs collaboratively -Team members work side-by-side one another. Roles are clearly defined and team members are aware of each others' scope of practice. (through documentation)

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Transdisciplinary

-all team members share responsibility and are accountable for the established goals of the client -Team members share roles and have fluid ways of functioning together in order to provide comprehensive services. Often seen in early intervention settings.

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The Occupational Therapy Process

-involves the interaction between the practitioner and the client -Collaborative -Dynamic process with the focus on occupation

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Occupational Therapy Process 3 areas

-evaluation -intervention -outcomes

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Evaluation Process

-Purpose: is to find out what the client wants and needs -Procedures are based on the client's age, diagnosis, developmental level, education, socioeconomic status, cultural background, and functional abilities -the therapists level of experience may affect the initial evaluation with a client

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Referral

Starts the OT process -A request for service for a particular client is made -From MD, nurse, PT, other health practitioner

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Screening

-The OT practitioner gathers preliminary information about the client and determines whether further evaluation and OT interventions are warranted. -Involves a review of the clients records, the use of a brief screening test, an interview , observation, and discussion with the referral source

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Occupational Profile

-identifies the clients history and patterns of living -Gather basic demographics : age, gender, reason for referral, diagnosis -It provides the practitioner with a history of the clients background and functional performance with which to design interventions

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Occupational Performance Analysis

-Uses the profile information to provide a direction to the practitioner to the areas that need further examination -Involves analyzing all aspects of the occupation to determine the client factors, patterns, skills and behaviors required to be successful -The evaluation requires the OT gather accurate and useful information to identify the needs and problems of the client to plan intervention. -Noted in three areas: interview, skilled observation, and formal evaluation procedures.

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Analysis of occupational performance

select specific assessments to determine problem areas

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process skills

includes motor, process, communication, and emotional components

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Interview

-The primary mechanism for gathering information for the occupational profile -Planned, organized to gather needed information -Checklists -Questionaires -Quiet -Private -Build your rapport here ( initial contact, gather info, closure)

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Observation

-Is the means of gathering information about a person or an environment by watching or noticing -Examples: posture, dress, social skills, one of voice, behavior, and physical abilities -Structured Observation: involves watching the client perform a predetermined activity

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Formal Assessment

-Tests -Instruments -Strategies that provide guidelines

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Intervention

Involves working with the client through therapy to reach client goals

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