Chapter 15: Special Senses

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Special Senses

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Special Senses

a. taste, smell, balance, hearing, sight

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most of the body's sensory receptors

70% are in the eye

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visual processing requires

half of cerebral cortex function

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eye accessories

a. Eyebrows Sun and sweat protection b. Eyelids c. Conjunctiva Mucous membrane Areas

  1. Palpebral

  2. Bulbur

  3. Conjunctival sac Conjunctivitis (pink eye) d. Lacrimal apparatus Tears and tear ducts e. Extrinsic eye muscles 6 total

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conjunctivitis

inflammation of conjunctiva (pink eye)

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strabismus

cross eye syndrome

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layers of the eye

fibrous layer vascular layer neural layer

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fibrous layer

i. Sclera- white covering ii. Cornea- anterior 1/6 of fibrous layer

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vascular layer

i. Choroid region (posterior) ii. Ciliary body iii. Iris

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neural layer

i. Photoreceptors ii. Bipolar cells iii. Ganglion cells iv. Optic disc

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Iris

divides the eye into anterior and posterior segments

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When light hits the photoreceptor cells, the signal then spreads to what other cells

spreads to the nerves

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rods

i. Better in dim light ii. More numerous iii. No sharp images

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cones

i. High resolution ii. Color iii. Better in bright light iv. Macula lutea Lateral to blind spot Fovea centralis All cones Best vision

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retinal detachment

a. Where the retina gets displaced, often caused by glaucoma

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vitreous humor

  • liquid in the posterior chamber

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aqueous humor

liquid in the anterior chamber

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glaucoma

a. Damage in the optic nerve

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lens structure

a. A biconvex flexible clear structure

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refreaction

a. Bending of light through transparent medium b. Entering the cornea, entering the lens and exiting the lens

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light passes through these structures

a. Passes through the cornea, humor, lens, vitreous humor, neural layer, and then the receptors

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distance vision

a. The lens is flat because the ciliary muscles are completely relaxed

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3 adjustments to see close

a. Accommodation of the lens b. Constriction of the pupils c. Convergence of the eyeballs

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myopia

a. Eye is too long, prevents eye from seeing far

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hyperopia

a. Eye is short, convex lens, cannot see close

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astigmatism

a. Blurry vision at any distance

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phototransduction

a. The process of converting photons to an action potential

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steps of phototransduction

  1. The outer segment absorbs light and changes shape when that light hit the cell

  2. It then moves into the inner segment where an AP is formed

  3. In the dark, retinal is in the bent form (11-cis-retinal)

  4. When retinal absorbs light, it straightens out (all- trans-retinal)

  5. all-trans-retinal is then released from opsin

  6. all-trans-retinal is then converted back to 11-cis- retinal by enzymes

  7. 11-cis-retinal then combines with opsin again

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photoreceptors segments

a. Outer segment Light receiving Visual pigments Renewed every 24 hours b. Inner segment Contains connectors

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colorblindness

a. Color deficiency caused by faulty cones

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retinal

a. Retinal Pigment made from vit A Associated with opsins

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rhodospin

rod retinal

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photpsin

cone retinal

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dark vision process

i. Retinal bent ii. Na+ and Ca++ channels are open; both ions move into photoreceptor iii. Photoreceptor depolarizes releasing inhibitory glutamate iv. This hyperpolarizes bipolar cell v. No signal sent to ganglion cell, no AP down optic nerve

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light vision process

i. Retinal straightens ii. Na+ and Ca++ channels close iii. Photoreceptor hyperpolarizes; no inhibitory glutamate is released iv. This depolarizes the bipolar cell v. Ganglion cell depolarizes, AP sent down optic nerve

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the key to vision

hyperpolarization

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light adaptation

i. Rods and cones are both active ii. Retinal is released

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dark adaptation

cones shut off

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nyctalopia

a. Rods are dysfunctional due to a lack of vitamin A b. Retinitis pigmentosa- degenerative retinal disease

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optic pathway

a. Photoreceptors stimulate bipolar cells which stimulate ganglion cells b. The axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve which exits the back of the eye c. Ganglion axons from the medial part of the eye cross over to the opposite side at the optic chiasma and axons from the lateral side stay at the same side.

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olfactory epithelium

a. Smell reception are at the top of the nose b. Cell types Olfactory Sensory neurons Supporting cells Olfactory stem cells

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olfactory activation

a. Odorants bind to the receptors b. Na/ca channels open depolarizing the cell c. Action potential occurs

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olfactory adaptation

a. Decreased response to stimuli

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taste bud location

surface of the tongue

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3 types of papillae

a. Fungiform- mushroom-like b. Foliate- located on the side walls c. Vallate- largest, form a V at the back of the tongue

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tongue epithelial cells

Gustatory- gustatory hair cell Basal- dynamic stem cells that are replaced every 7-10 days

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taste activation

Triggered by hairs, releases a transmitter, AP occurs in cranial nerves VII and IX

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primary taste sensations

a. Sweet b. Sour c. Salty d. Bitter e. Umami f. Possible sixth having to do with fatty acids

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3 major areas of the ears

a. Outer ear b. Middle ear c. Inner ear (hearing and balance)

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functions of the outer ear

a. To funnel sound into the ear b. Auricle c. Helix d. lobule

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tympanic membrane

a. The ear drum b. Vibrates in response to sound c. Boundary between external and middle ear d. Transfers energy to the bones in the middle ear

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tympanic cavities and structures

a. The cavity that hold the middle ear, in between the ear drum and the oval window b. Pharyngotymantic tube Connects the ear to the throat Regulates pressure c. Auditory ossicles (synovially jointed) Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrups) d. Skeletal muscles Tensor tympani stapedius

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otitis media

a. Middle ear inflammation b. Can cause hearing loss c. Treated with antibiotics or ear tubes

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parts and divisions of the inner ear

a. 3 regions Cochlea Vestibule Semicircular canals b. 2 divisions Bony labyrinth Membranous labyrinth

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inner ear fluids

a. Endolymph fluid- internal (high k+ concentration) b. Perilymph fluid- between labyrinths (high na+)

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vestibule

a. Helps with balance (maculae) b. Sacs Saccule- cochlear duct Utricle- semicircular canals

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semicircular canals

a. houses equilibrium receptors in a region called the crista ampullaris located in an enlarged area of each canal (ampulla) b. Crista ampullaris (rotational movement)

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Auditory ossicles

i. Malleus (hammer) ii. Incus (anvil) iii. Stapes (stirrups)

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cochlea

Contains the spiral organ center of the inner ear

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3 chambers of the cochlea

a. Scala vestibuli b. Scala media- endolymph fluid c. Scala tympani- perilymph fluid

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cochlear structures

a. Vestibular membrane- roof of the cochlea b. Strata vascularis- outside wall c. Basilar membrane- floor d. Spiral organ- center of the cochlea e. Tectorial membrane- roof of the spiral organ covering

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spiral organ

a. Located between the tectorial and basilar membrane b. 1 row of inner hairs, 3 rows of outer c. Hairs are moved which transmits to a nerve

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sound wave process

a. The sound waves enter your auricle, travel down the external auditory meatus, causing your tympanic membrane to vibrate; results in vibration of the auditory ossicles

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physiology of sound transduction

a. Sound waves vibrate the tympanic membrane b. Auditory ossicles vibrate with pressure’ c. Pressure waves created by stapes vibrates fluid in scala vestibuli d. Sounds with frequencies below hearing travel through the cochlea and do not excite hair cells. e. Sounds in the hearing range go through the cochlear duct, vibrating the basilar membrane and deflecting hairs on inner hair cells.

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deafness

a. Conduction Blocked conduction b. Sensorineural Damage to the neural tract at any point Usually at the hairs

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tinnitus

a. Ringing or buzzing in the ears

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equilibrium

a. Response to movements in the head b. Static No movement relative to gravity Maculae c. Dynamic Head moves Crista ampularis

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maculae

a. It helps with posture by monitoring static equilibrium b. Hair cells c. One in the saccule and one in the utricle in the vestibule of the inner ear d. Monitors position of head in space e. Plays a key role in posture f. Responds to linear acceleration

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cristae ampullaris

a. sensory receptor organ that monitors dynamic equilibrium b. Located in the ampulla in each semicircular canal; 3 canals for all three planes of motion c. Excited by acceleration and deceleration of the head (especially by rotational or angular movements)

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vestibular nystagmus

a. Strange eye movements during or immediately after rotation b. Can occur because semicircular canal impulses are linked to reflexive movements of the eye

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