Bio Unit 2: Chemistry of Life

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biotic

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37 Terms

1

biotic

living; being or relating to living organisms

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2

abiotic

physical / nonliving; not associated or derived from living organisms

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3

DNA

genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents

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4

organization

internal systems in an organism that keep order and make up its whole

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5

growth

having different developmental stages

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6

stimulus response

an organism’s reaction to an external/environmental signal (light, temperature, smell)

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7

reproduce

pass on an organism’s genetic information to its offspring

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8

energy

organisms need to consume things to survive

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9

adapt

change/act accordingly in response to one’s surroundings

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10

cells

basic unit of all forms of life

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11

homeostasis

relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain

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12

virus

particle that can replicate only by infecting living cells (made of protein, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids)

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13

atom

the basic unit of matter

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14

element

pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom

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15

molecule

smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound

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16

compound

substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

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17

proton

positively charged particle; located in the nucleus

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18

electron

negatively charged particle; located in the space surrounding the nucleus

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19

neutron

particle with no charge; located in the nucleus

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20

subscript

tells you the number of atoms in the preceding element

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21

coefficient

the whole number in front of the compound that tells you how many of the compound there are

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22

chemical formula

an expression that shows the elements in a chemical compound or molecule

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23

monomer

small chemical unit that makes up a polymer

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24

polymer

molecule composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules

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25

carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; types of nutrients that are the major source of energy to the body

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26

lipid

macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

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27

nucleotide

subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

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28

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous

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29

protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair

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30

amino acid

compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end

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31

reactant

elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

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32

product

elements of compounds produced by chemical reactions

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33

activation energy

energy input that is needed for a reaction to begin

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34

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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35

enzyme

protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions

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36

substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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37

active site

the cavity on an enzyme where the substrate enters in

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