Ch.9 Articulations and Movements

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name the functional classifications of joints

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name the functional classifications of joints

-synarthroses -amphiarthroses -diarthroses

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name the structural classifications of joints

-fibrous -cartilaginous -synovial

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describe synarthroses

immovable joints

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describe amphiarthroses

slightly movable joints

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describe diarthroses

freely mobile joints

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what are the possible types of synarthroses?

fibrous or cartilaginous

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what are the possible types of amphiarthroses?

fibrous or cartilaginous

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what are the possible types of diarthroses?

all are synovial

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describe fibrous joints

held together by dense CT made up of collagenous fibers

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describe cartilaginous joints

bones connected by cartilage (hyaline or fibrocartilage); no joint cavity

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describe synovial joints

mix of proteins (ligaments) and cartilage; allow free movement

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what are the types of fibrous joints?

-sutures -syndesmoses -gomphoses

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what are the types of cartilaginous joints?

-synchondroses -symphyses

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what are the types of synovial joints?

-ball and socket -condyloid or ellipsoidal -gliding or planar -hinge -pivot -saddle

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describe sutures

thin layer of short fibers and dense CT; interlocking, irregular edges interlocking creates strength

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describe gomphosis

cone shaped bony process in a bony socket (gums; "peg in a socket"

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describe syndesmosis

joints bound by sheet or bundle of CT; flexible; may twist slightly

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describe synchondrosis

hyaline cartilage connects bones (can be temporary or permanent)

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describe symphysis

contains springy fibrocartilage; cartilaginous pad compresses with force; absorbs shock

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describe synovial

allow free movement

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location of sutures

b/w some bones of skull

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location of gomphosis

tooth attached to maxilla or mandible (periodontal ligament)

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location of syndesmosis

interosseous membrane (b/w radius and ulna or b/w tibia and fibula)

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location of synchondrosis

epiphyseal growth plate (temporary); manubrium and first rib

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location of symphysis

-pubic symphysis -intervertebral discs

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structural and functional classifications of sutures

fibrous; synarthrosis

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structural and functional classifications of gomphosis

fibrous; synarthrosis

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structural and functional classifications of syndesmosis

fibrous; amphiarthrosis

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structural and functional classifications of synchondrosis

cartilaginous; synarthrosis

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structural and functional classifications of symphysis

cartilaginous; amphiarthrosis

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structural and functional classifications of synovial

synovial; diarthrosis

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description of ball and socket joints

widest range of motion in all planes and rotational

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description of condyloid/ellipsoidal joints

condyle of one bone fits into elliptical cavity of another bone; movement in many planes; no rotational movement

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description of gliding/planar joints

nearly flat, slightly curved; slide back and forth; twist

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description of hinge joints

convex surface fits into concave surface (like a door hinge)

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description of pivot joints

cylindrical joint inside ring of bone; rotational around central axis

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description of saddle joints

both concave and convex complimentary surfaces; can move in 2 directions

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examples of ball and socket joints

-hip -shoulder

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examples of condyloid/ellipsoidal joints

metacarpals to proximal phalanges

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examples of gliding/planar joints

-Intercarpal -Intertarsal -Vertebrae -Sacroiliac -Ribs 2-7, sternum

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examples of hinge joints

-Elbow -Between phalanges -Tibiofemoral between tibia and femur (knee)

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examples of pivot joints

-Neck (atlantoaxial joint) -Radius; pivots on ulna (at elbow)

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examples of saddle joints

-carpal and metacarpal of thumb (trapeziometacarpal)

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name the important parts of ALL synovial joints

  1. Articular cartilage

  2. Articular capsule

  3. Synovial membrane

  4. Synovial Fluid

  5. Ligaments

  6. Nerves

  7. Blood vessels

** make sure to know definitions **

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name the other parts of SOME synovial joints

-Meniscus -Bursa -Tendons

** make sure to know definitions **

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name the 4 major classifications of movements in synovial joints

-gliding -angular -rotational -special

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describe the gliding movement classification

Two opposing surfaces sliding back-and-forth or side-to-side; only limited movement possible in any direction; typically occurs in planar joints

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example of gliding movement

intercarpal or intertarsal (planar joints)

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describe the angular movement classification

increases or decreases angle between two bones

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what are the specific types of angular motion?

-Flexion -Extension -Hyperextension -Lateral flexion -Abduction -Adduction -Circumduction

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describe flexion

decreasing angle b/w bones (brings bones closer together)

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example of flexion

bending knee

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describe extension

increases angle between bones (brings bones closer together)

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example of extension

straightening knee

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describe hyperextension

joint extended more than 180 degrees

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example of hyperextension

looking up at ceiling while standing

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describe lateral flexion

trunk of body moving laterally

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example of lateral flexion

occurs between vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar region

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describe abduction

lateral movement of a body part away from the midline

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example of abduction

arm moved laterally away from midline

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describe adduction

medial movement of body part toward midline

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example of adduction

arm brought back to midline

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describe circumduction

proximal end of appendage relatively stationary; distal end makes a circular motion

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example of circumduction

drawing a circle on the blackboard

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describe the rotational movement classification

bone pivots on its own longitudinal axis

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what are the specific types of rotational motion?

-lateral rotation -medial rotation -pronation -supination

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describe lateral rotation

turns anterior surface of bone laterally

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example of lateral rotation

pointing toes outward

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describe medial rotation

turns anterior surface of bone medially

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example of medial rotation

crossing arms over chest

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describe pronation

-medial rotation of forearm so palm of hand posterior

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example of pronation

giving someone a high five

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describe supination

-lateral rotation of forearm so palm of hand anterior

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example of supination

balancing a book flat on one's hand

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describe the special movement classification

do not readily fit other functional categories

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what are the specific types of special motion?

-depression -elevation -dorsiflexion -plantar flexion -inversion -eversion -protraction -retraction -opposition -reposition

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describe depression

inferior movement of a body part

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example of depression

open mouth (mandible)

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describe elevation

superior movement of a body part

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example of elevation

close mouth (mandible)

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describe dorsiflexion

ankle joint; foot pointed superiorly

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example of dorsiflexion

standing on your heels

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describe plantar flexion

ankle joint; feet pointed posteriorly

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example of plantar flexion

standing on tippy toes

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