APHG Chapter 4 Core Content Review

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What is material culture?

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What is material culture?

Culture derived from everyday survival activities like food, shelter, and clothing.

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What is a habit?

Repetitive act of an individual

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What is a custom?

Repetitive act of a group to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of said group.

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What is folk culture?

Culture that is traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous group living in isolated rural areas

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What is popular culture?

Culture found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.

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What is the difference between a custom and a habit?

Customs are repetitive acts that are widely adopted by groups of people, and habits are not (solely individual).

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What are the major differences between folk and popular culture?

Spatial distribution (popular is widespread while folk is clustered), the process of origin, and diffusion patterns.

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What is a hearth?

A center of innovation in which social customs originate.

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How are the concepts of hearth and diffusion different for folk and popular culture?

Folk cultures typically have unknown hearths and can be independent innovations. Popular culture can be traced back primarily to MDCs in North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Popular culture is typically diffused through hierarchical diffusion, and folk culture is typically diffused through relocation diffusion.

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List elements of the origin and characteristics of folk music.

Folk music tells a story or can be used to discuss daily activities like farming, life-cycle events (birth, death, marriage), and mysterious natural events like earthquakes and storms. The origin of folk songs is usually anonymous and spread through communication. Folk songs change over generations to remain relevant, but the ideas in the song that occur in everyday lives remain familiar to the majority of people it diffuses to.

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List elements of the origin and diffusion of popular music.

Popular music has one origin of specific individuals who make the song with the intent of it producing an income. It is based on music technology. The music industry in the United States is thought to have come from the need for songs in music halls in New York, specifically Tin Pan Alley. Popular music diffused worldwide during World Wide II because the Armed Forces Radio Network broadcasted music to American soldiers where they were stationed, along with the citizens of that location. This exposure made English popular music very mainstream.

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Where did Amish culture originate and how did it diffuse to the United States?

The Amish culture originated in Switzerland, France, and the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany. Amish culture diffused via relocation diffusion because of religious freedom in the United States.

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Identify Amish core areas (larger settlements) and then explain where the Amish culture spread throughout a larger region.

The Amish core areas are Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and Ontario. The Amish culture spread to locations where inexpensive land was available.

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In what ways is Amish culture distinct from the popular culture of the United States?

The Amish culture is distinct from the popular culture of the United States as they live in rural, isolated areas, shun mechanical/electrical power, travel by horse and buggy, use hand tools for farming, and have distinct clothing, farming, and religion.

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What is happening to the Amish in the United States today?

Today, the Amish are migrating from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania to Christian and Todd counties in Kentucky. An Amish tradition is for each son to have his own farmland, but with land running out in Lancaster County, places like Kentucky with a large amount of available land become sites for the Amish to expand.

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Describe why Soccer was illustrative as Folk Culture.

Soccer was an example of folk culture because it originated in small villages in England, dating back to as early as the 11th century (1018/1042). It was solely played in these small, rural villages, and remained consistent throughout the years it was illustrative of folk culture.

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How was soccer originally a folk custom into popular culture. Then, describe Soccer is illustrative as Popular Culture.

Soccer started as an English folk custom in small villages, but as it became adapted by recreation clubs in Britain for leisure time, it grew in popularity. As sports became a school subject, the popularity of soccer skyrocketed.

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Describe the history of lacrosse.

Lacrosse originated in the Iroquois Confederation of Six Nations in southeastern Canada, and the northeastern United States. In 1636, European colonists saw the natives playing lacrosse (guhchigwaha or bump hips in their language), and adapted it. These colonists diffused it to other US communities and renamed it lacrosse, after a bishop’s crosier/staff because it resembles the stick. The Federation of National Lacrosse has invited the Iroquois to participate in recent years.

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Despite their anonymous folk origins, what characteristics of organized spectator sports today characterize them as popular culture?

The characteristics of organized spectator sports that characterize them as popular culture today are the willingness of people worldwide to pay to view professional players playing the events.

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How does clothing style (in this case, shoes) indicate the influence of the environment on folk culture?

Clothing style (shoes) indicates the influence of the environment on folk culture as the shoes that people wear in certain locations vary based on the environment. People in arctic climates wear fur-lined boots, people in warm and humid climates may not need shoes at all, and the Dutch wear wooden shoes because the fields they work in are very wet.

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Provide 2 different ways the environment affects food preparation in Europe.

2 different ways that the environment affects food preparation in Europe are that in Italy, with the abundance of quick-frying food resulted in a fuel shortage and that in Northern Europe, due to the high quantity of wood, stewing/roasting foods over these fires became very popular.

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What is the food taboo in Judaism? Why?

No eating animals that chew their cud, no animals that have cloven feet, or fish without fins or scales. These taboos were developed around environmental concerns as the ancient Hebrews were pastoral nomads.

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What is the food taboo in Islam? Why?

No eating pork. Pigs are taboo in Islam because they compete with human resources, and have no key uses that can benefit the people.

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What is the food taboo in Hinduism? Why?

No eating beef because cows are a necessity for agricultural work like pulling plows.

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Why did Christians ignore the pork taboo?

Christians ignored the pork taboo to distinguish themselves from Judaism, and since Christianity is a universalizing religion, it isn’t highly associated with religious taboos.

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What does the French word Terroir mean (it does not mean “land” or “earth”)? What are some of the effects that make up what it is?

Terroir is the contribution of a location's unique physical characteristics to the way that food tastes. It loosely translates to grounded or sense of place. The effects it can be referring to are the combination of soil, climate, and other physical features that contribute to the taste of a given food.

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Why do Brunhes and Kniffen believe that houses are important to study in Human Geography?

Brunhes and Kniffen believe that houses are important to study in human geography because they reflect cultural tradition, natural conditions, cultural heritage, current fashion, functional needs, and the impact of the environment on the design of the houses.

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Besides wood and brick, what are some design elements of houses that are the result the environment?

Design elements of houses that are also the result of the environment besides wood and brick are stone, grass, sod, and skins.

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Where are brick and wood used, and why are they used?

Wood is typically used in forested regions because it is easy to build with, and accessible. Brick is typically used in hot, dry climates because it can be made by keeping wet mud in the sun.

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What environmental and cultural institutions shape the differences in Himalayan art?

The cultural institutions that shape these differences are religion, and environmental processes are climate, landforms, and vegetation.

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What are house features in Java? Why?

Front door always faces south. South is the direction of the South Sea Goddess, who is believed to hold the key to Earth.

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What are house features in Madagascar? Why?

The main door always is on the west, the northeast corner is the most sacred, important guests are seated against the north wall, and the bed is positioned against the east wall of the house facing north. The main door is on the west wall because the west is considered to be the most important direction. The north wall is used to honor ancestors.

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What are house features in Laos? Why?

Beds are arranged perpendicular to the center ridgepole of the house. The head is positioned to be ”high and noble,” while the feet are positioned to be “low and vulgar.” People must sleep with their heads and feet facing the opposite way of their neighbors, with the exception of children who must face their heads towards their parents’ feet as a sign of obedience.

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What were the housing styles Fred Kniffen identified with Chesapeake Bay and where did the style move to?

Tidewater home style. This house originated in Chesapeake Bay (Tidewater, Virginia), and spread along the southeast coast.

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What were the housing styles Fred Kniffen identified with the Middle Atlantic and where did the style move to?

The I-house, which originated on the southeastern coast, but migrated further inwards to the Ohio Valley and Appalachian trails.

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What were the 4 housing styles Fred Kniffen identified with New England and where did the styles move to?

  1. The Saltbox house originated in New England near Rhode Island and Massachusetts and moved more northern over time to Maine. 2. The Two-Chimney house originated in New England near Rhode Island and Massachusetts but moved primarily north to Maine, but also moved northwest to New York and southwestern to Ohio. 3. The Cape Cod house originated in New England near Rhode Island and Massachusetts and moved mostly north to Maine, northwestern to New York, and southwestern to Ohio, but additionally moved western to Michigan. 4. The Front Gable and Wing house originated in New England near Rhode Island and Massachusetts and primarily migrated western to Michigan and southwestern to Ohio, but additionally moved north to Maine and northwestern to New York.

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Define gable.

The generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting sloped roofs.

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Consumption of large quantities of what two food products are characteristic of popular culture?

Alcoholic beverages and snack foods.

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How is each of these food preferences (alcoholic beverages and and snack foods) expressed regionally, according to culture?

Alcoholic beverages tend to be consumed near where they are produced (i.e high tequila consumption in the Southwest and Mexico), and places like the Southeast have low alcohol consumption because of the cluster of Baptists in this region and the cluster of Latter-day Saints in Utah. Snack foods tend to vary interregionally. Pork rinds are very popular southern snack foods because of the high pig concentration, and popcorn and potato chips are popular in the Northeast because of the abundance of potatoes and corn. This can be expressed differently, as shown through a Texan preference for tortilla chips due to the large Hispanic American population, and the Western preference for multigrain chips because of health concerns.

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What are important environmental and cultural facts about wine production?

The environment plays a significant role in the production of wine (terroirs). Certain conditions (soil, climate) produce different tastes and certain elements contribute to distinct tastes by location. The distribution of wine production worldwide shows that its diffusion is more dependent on the cultural values and mentifacts of a region than the physical environment. Most wine production in the world is near the Mediterranean Sea (except in countries with non-Christian religions), and other places with similar climates. Many religions do not encourage wine production (Hinduism, Islam), with the exception of Christianity. There is little wine production in regions where Christianity isn’t a primary religion.

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In contrast to folk customs, popular customs diffuse rapidly across the earth’s surface to locations with a wide variety of physical conditions. This diffusion depends on what?

A group of people having a sufficiently high level of economic development in order to obtain the material possessions associated with the popular custom.

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In Western countries where popular culture predominates, clothing styles generally reflect what?

Occupations rather than particular environments.

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What are important facts about clothing styles associated with popular culture?

Clothing styles are typically affiliated with the occupation of the given person. People with certain jobs wear certain clothes. Clothing styles vary with income. People with high incomes are more likely to keep up with popular culture fashion trends. The preferred clothing style of popular culture changes rapidly, so companies must be swift with their production. Popular culture is adapting more folk clothing styles with the increased access to communication and travel. The popular culture use is often for fashion purposes instead of the original folk use of environmental adaptations.

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What are important facts about jeans being an example of popular culture?

Jeans were seen as a symbol of youthfulness ever since the 1960s. They were formerly associated with farmers and rural fashion. In the Soviet Union, jeans were a symbol of status because they were rare due to the prevention of their importation because of the Communist government. Jeans were a consumer problem that contributed to the dismantling of the Communist government. Methods of communication like television allowed consumers to obtain jeans through non-governmental industries. As Levi’s jeans became more accessible worldwide, Americans began to stray from the company.

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What are two reasons why television is an especially significant element of culture?

  1. Television is the most popular leisure activity in MDCs. 2. Television is the most important mechanism for rapidly diffusing popular culture worldwide.

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Where is television universal?

North America, Europe, part of East Asia (China, Japan, South Korea), Australia, Eastern/Southern South America.

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Where is television common?

Latin America, Western South America, Middle East, North Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia.

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Where is television rare?

Central Africa, Southern Africa

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How long did it take television to diffuse?

North America is the hearth of television, so it spread rapidly there. Television diffused relatively quickly to Europe, Australia, and parts of South America and Latin America. Television diffused slowly to Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. Both internet and television diffuse faster to MDCs.

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Where is internet universal?

North America, Europe, Australia.

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Where is internet common?

South America, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia.

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Where is internet rare?

Africa

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How long did it take the internet to diffuse?

The internet diffused rapidly throughout its hearth: North America. The internet diffused quickly to Europe and Australia. The internet diffused slowly to the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Latin America, and South America. Both internet and television diffuse faster to MDCs.

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Discuss the diffusion of Facebook/social media, how is it like TV and internet and how is it not?

The diffusion of Facebook/social media is like television and the internet as it had the most users in the United States, but differs because it only has the chance to diffuse to other countries, and could be overtaken by other social networking platforms.

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How and where has folk clothing styles worldwide been threatened by popular culture?

Folk clothing styles in Asian and African countries have been threatened by popular culture as the clothing style of business suits diffused, and began to replace traditional clothes associated with authority.

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How have women in many parts of the world been helped by the spread of popular culture? How have they been hurt?

Women in many parts of the world have been helped by the spread of popular culture because of the social customs that encourage women empowerment and have been hurt by the aspects of popular culture like prostitution. The spread of prostitution to LDCs has been harmful for women empowerment as “sex tours” reinforce the ideas of subservience of women to men, painting women as a sex object for money.

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What three countries dominate worldwide television markets? What regions does each dominate?

United States, UK, Japan. The US dominates Latin America. The UK dominates Africa. Japan dominates South and East Asia.

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Why do leaders of developing countries view TV to be a kind of economic or cultural imperialism (look up this term)? Provide examples.

Leaders of developing countries view TV to be a kind of economic or cultural imperialism (especially the United States) because it is presenting American beliefs and social customs that oppose the traditional customs. Examples of this are the American beliefs of freedom for women, upward social mobility, glorification of youth, and stylized violence, possibly being controversial in LDCs with traditional beliefs.

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How do developing countries LDCs attempt to avoid offending traditional culture? Provide examples.

Developing countries attempt to avoid offending traditional culture by banning certain networks and having government censorship. An example to prevent this from happening, cartoons that feature Porky Pig are banned in Muslim countries because of their taboo towards pork. MTV is banned in many Asian countries as well.

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In developing countries (LDCs), what functions of news is run by the government?

In developing countries, the functions of news that are run by the government are the radio, TV services, and the domestic news-gathering agency. Newspapers may be run by the government or a political party or a private individual.

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What dominates the diffusion of information to the news organizations? In which countries are these located?

The diffusion of information to the news organizations is dominated by the Associated Press and Reuters. These are British and American companies.

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Why do African and Asian government officials criticize the Western concept of freedom of the press?

African and Asian government officials criticize the Western concept of freedom of the press because they argue that the American news organizations do not accurately depict other countries’ points of view and their coverage reflects their American beliefs.

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Since moving away from over-the-air TV that was nodal, countries have had to contend with programs produced in other countries, not just local government-controlled stations. Describe this situation as evidenced by China.

This situation of people in a certain country being able to watch television programs from different countries through satellite television in China was seen as a problem. The Chinese government forbade citizens from owning satellite dishes, and only allowed foreigners and high-end hotels to keep them. Despite the ban of satellite dishes and heavy fines if convicted of ownership, many Chinese (a few hundred thousand) still choose to own satellite television.

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In India, explain how dowries changed over time.

Dowries have changed over time in India as it began as a tradition for the groom to give a small dowry (a gift that may be cash or another expensive consumer good) to the bride’s family, but with changing social customs, it has changed to the bride’s family having to give a substantial dowry to the groom’s family.

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Explain how popular culture negatively impacts women.

Popular culture negatively impacts women because it reinforces ideas that women are not equal to men in countries that have the traditional beliefs. With the diffusion of popular culture social customs of women empowerment, these countries attempt to make their traditional beliefs even more prominent to prevent the risk of the popular culture overtaking the folk customs.

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Provide three ways in which popular culture is good for women.

Popular culture is good for women because it diffuses the idea that women are more than an addition of men, encourages women to get jobs and education instead of being sole childbearers, and normalizes social norms of respect and equality of women.

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Explain why the government banned dowries (what are the dangers of the system).

The government banned dowries because it has had a negative impact on women. If the bride’s family does not provide the dowry, the bride may be cast to the streets, and many angry men even kill the bride if her family does not give the dowry. These risks with having a girl have led many Indians to abort female fetuses, and the neglect of young girls.

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Where are the highest concentration of golf courses in the US? Why?

The highest concentration of golf courses in the US are in north-central states. This is because these states have traditions of playing golf, and golf is an important custom.

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What are reasons for a lack of golf courses in other parts of the US?

The reasons for a lack of golf courses in other parts of the US as these regions are urbanized, and have a lack of land to build golf courses on.

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How are golf courses an example of a popular custom which is not generally in harmony with the local environment?

Golf courses are an example of a popular custom which is not generally in harmony with the local environment because in order to make a golf course, hills must be flattened or created, grass must be altered accordingly, sand must either be dug up or transported, and bodies of water must either be drained or created. Golf courses require complete transformation of the local environment.

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What is a “uniform landscape”?

A uniform landscape is when the spatial expression of a popular custom in one location is similar to another.

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What two reasons are provided for why promoters of popular culture want a uniform appearance?

Promoters of popular culture want a uniform appearance because it generates product recognition and greater consumption.

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How do fast-food restaurants change the landscape?

Fast food restaurants change the landscape as it creates more uniformity as fast food buildings are built to be nationally recognizable. Their design remains consistent regardless of location.

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How might fast-food restaurants reduce adverse impacts on the environment?

Fast food restaurants may reduce adverse impacts on the environment by using biodegradable products and recycling unused products.

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What types of business in the US look for uniformity of landscape? What is a benefit of the uniformity?

The types of businesses in the US that look for uniformity of landscape are fast food restaurants, gas stations, supermarkets, and motels. A benefit of the uniformity is that if visitors don’t recognize the name, they will recognize the purpose of the building.

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What are the two ways in which popular customs have an adverse effect on the natural environment?

  1. Depletion of scarce natural resources 2. Pollution of the landscape

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How does folk culture hurt the environment?

Folk culture hurts the environment because it can encourage the use of animal skins.

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Provide two examples of how animal products are demanded by popular culture.

Animal products are demanded by popular culture for fashion purposes and for meat.

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Why is animal consumption an inefficient way for people to acquire calories? Provide examples.

Animal consumption is an inefficient way for people to acquire calories because it is 90% less efficient than if people ate grain directly. For every 1 kilogram of beef, the animal consumes 10 kilograms of grain. For every 1 kilogram of chicken, the animal consumes about 3 kilograms of grain. The meat is an unnecessary step, and humans could eat the grains directly.

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