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behaviorism

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132 Terms
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behaviorism

the only valid way to know about somebody is to watch the person's behavior because personality is a set of learned responses to the environment

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John Watson and B.F Skinner

best vantage point for understanding a person is from the outside because that is where the visible causes of behavior are to be found

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empiricism

all knowledge comes from experience

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associationism

any two things, including ideas, become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time

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hedonism

people learn to seek pleasure and avoid pain

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utilitarianism

society is one that creates the most happiness for the largest number of people

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learning

change of behavior as a function of experience

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habituation

the simplest way behavior changes as a result of experience

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classical conditioning

an unconditioned response that is naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited also by a new conditioned stimulus

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learned helplessness

the feeling of anxiety due to the unpredictability that leads to a a behavioral pattern

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operant conditioning

association

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rewarded, more

If you are _____ for behavior then you will do it ______ often.

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punished, less

If you are _______ for behavior then you will do it _____ often.

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punishment

an aversive consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent its repetition

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availability of alternatives

the alternative response to the behavior that is being punished must be available

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behavioral and situational specificity

be clear about exactly what behavior you are punishing and the circumstances under which it will and will not be punished

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timing and consistency

a punishment needs to be applied immediately after the behavior you wish to prevent every time a behavior occurs

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conditioning secondary punishing stimuli

one can lessen the actual use of punishment by conditioning secondary stimuli to it

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avoid mixed messages

punish if you must punish but do not mix your messages

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dangers of punishment

  • can arouse emotions

  • difficult to be consistent

  • difficult to gauge the severity

  • teaches misuse of power

  • motivates concealment

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shyness

Individuals differences in ______ reflect differences in learned responses to the environment.

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social learning theory

claim that the ways people think, plan, perceive, and believe are important parts of learning that research must address the process

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expectancy theory value

behavioral decisions are determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcement but also by any beliefs about the likely results of behavior

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specific expectancy

belief that certain behavior, at a certain time and place will lead to specific outcomes

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generalized expectancy

beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference

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efficacy expectations

one's beliefs that one can perform a goal-directed behavior

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observational learning

acquire behavior by watching someone else and observing the consequences

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reciprocal determinism

analysis of how people shape their environments

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expected consequences

a person knows the consequences based on thoughts and knowledge

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cognitive perspective

our personality reflects how we process information about ourselves, others, and the world

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hostile attribution bias

people learn to see the world as a hostile, threatening place

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negative self-schemas

insulting thoughts about the self

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people differ in their tendency to ....

experience emotion, express particular emotions, and understand/recognize emotion in others

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emotional experience

  • appraisal

  • physical responses

  • facial expressions

  • nonverbal behaviors

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emotional intelligence

accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others

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cognitive control

how people feel and respond to the way they feel

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happiness

  • overall satisfaction with life

  • satisfaction with how things are going in certain instances

  • high levels of positive emotion and low levels of negative emotion

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How can we study if emotion expressions are innate or socially learned?

  1. we learn them

  2. we are born with them because of emotion

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priming

activation of a concept or idea by repeatedly perceiving it or thinking about it

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hostility

_______ can cause someone to perceive an ambiguous situation as threatening.

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perceptual defense

process of failing to perceive stimuli that an individual from feeling too much anxiety

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representations

How we process information reflects our mental _______ of ourselves, others, and the world.

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thought

Decisions reached by an individual's _______ process determine many of their actions.

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short-term memory

where the consciousness is located

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chunks

any piece of information that can be thought of as a unit

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rational system

is an analytic, logical, systematic, factual knowledge

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experimental system

is holistic, affective, intuitive, insightful, and wise

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motivated view

we burry hidden needs/desires in the unconscious

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cognitive view

information perceived may get into unconscious and influence us but is not buried there

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Gottfredson

intelligence is a very general, mental capacity that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, and learn quickly from experience

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schemas

provide a framework for encoding and integrating new information

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self-schema

-__ help you understand and organize your experiences and beliefs about yourself.

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self-aggrandizing

unrealistically positive self-schemas

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rejection sensitivity

chronic accessibility of rejection relationship schemas

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idiographic goals

those that are unique to the individual that supports them

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nomothetic goals

relatively small number of essential motivations that almost everyone pursues

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judgement goals

seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself

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development goals

desire to actually improve oneself, to become smarter, more beautiful, or more popular

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self-awareness

  • the I

  • self as the perceiver: does the thinking and the describing

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cognitive behavioral markers

  • 18 to 24 months

  • mirror self-recognition

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linguistic markers

  • 1 to 2 years old

  • self-referencing with 1st person pronouns

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emotional markers

  • 2 to 3 years old

  • self-concept emotions

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self-concept

  • the Me

  • self as object being perceived: is observed and described

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self-efficacy

the degree to which believe you are capable of succeeding a specific task

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four important parts of the self

  1. self-regulation

  2. information-processing filter guiding us to focus on and remember the information that really matters to us

  3. help us relate to other people

  4. identity

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self-discrepancy theory

you have not one but two kinds of desired selves and the difference between them and your actual self determines how you feel

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ideal self

your view of what you could be at your best and who you'd like to be

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ought self

your view of what you should be

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self-esteem

your overall opinion about whether you are good or bad, worthy or unworthy, or somewhere in between

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What measures self-esteem?

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and The Single Item Self-Esteem Scale

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parents

________ have little influence of self-esteem development.

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high

In childhood we have _____ self-esteem.

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drops

In adolescence self-esteem ______ particularly for girls.

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gradually

In adulthood self-esteem _______ increases.

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drops

In old age self-esteem _______ sharply.

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self-enhancement

thinking that you are better than the other people who knows you thinks you are

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declarative knowledge

consists of the facts and impressions that we consciously know and can describe

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procedural knowledge

expressed through actions not words

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self, others

The _____ is better at judging its own emotional experience, but ______ are better at judging assertiveness, humor, talkativeness, and more.

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psychotherapy

_______ is often to try to gain a broad view of one's own behavior to discover where one's strengths and weaknesses lie.

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Why does self knowledge matter?

  • choosing a career

  • choosing a partner

  • choosing a president

  • choosing how to spend your free time

  • choosing friends

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)

a list and decision of what were seen as major disorders of personality and other psychological afflictions

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purposes of the DSM

  • make psychological diagnosis more objective

  • gives the psychiatrist or therapist something to write on the insurance billing

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personality disorder

a pattern of thought, feeling, and behavior that goes beyond the normal rang and causes problems for the affected individual or for others

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