Exam 1 Research Methods

studied byStudied by 67 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

5 ways by which information about the world may be obtained

1 / 81

Tags and Description

Psychology

82 Terms

1

5 ways by which information about the world may be obtained

  1. Method of tenacity (long held beliefs)

  2. Method of authority (rely on experts)

  3. Reason (logic & rationality)

  4. Personal experience

  5. Empiricism (based on the senses)

New cards
2

the scientific method relies on...

empiricism

New cards
3

the basic characteristics of the scientific method that distinguish it from other ways of knowing...

  1. It is empirical - based on information perceived by the senses. It is based on data by systematic observation.

  2. It is analytic - based on the idea that you are taking a complex idea and breaking it down into constituent parts.

New cards
4

3 basic procedures used in scientific inquiry

  1. Description

  2. Prediction

  3. Explanation

New cards
5

which basic procedure used in scientific inquiry permits causal inferences to be made?

prediction

New cards
6

inductive reasoning

data --> theory

  • uses data then draws conclusions from the data

New cards
7

deductive reasoning

theory --> data

  • starts with a hypothesis and examines all possibilities to reach a specific conclusion

New cards
8

the 2 major functions of a theory

  1. Organize data (ex: periodic table)

  2. Generate predictions

New cards
9

why cant a theory be considered "proven" when its supported by experimental data?

there can be multiple factors affecting the theory. Once one factor confirms the theory, further experimentation needs to be performed to investigate other factors contributing to that theory. Theories are ever-changing and are unlike laws. Theories are constantly being evaluated and experimented on resulting in improvement and deeper explanation over time, whereas laws remain stagnant and their idea does not improve/change, as it remains the same from start to finish.

New cards
10

the 3 criteria for evaluating theories

  1. Parsimony

  2. Precision

  3. Testability

New cards
11

parsimony

can explain many occurrences with few statements

New cards
12

precision

the more precise, the better (best if quantitative)

New cards
13

testability

if can't test the theory, it can't be falsifiable

New cards
14

"strong inference" in comparing different theories

A strong inference is when one theory is pitted against another theory. For example, theory A predicts outcome 1 and theory B predicts outcome 2. The two theories are pitted against each other, resulting in a confirmation on one outcome (i.e. outcome 1), which rejects the other theory (i.e. theory B).

New cards
15

theory

a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data.

New cards
16

hypothesis

usually tentative, an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

New cards
17

major threats to validity in naturalistic observations

  • use unobtrusive observations

  • use unobtrusive measures

  • habituate subjects to presence of observer

  • use deception as to what is really being measured

New cards
18

major threats to validity in case studies

  • problems include forgetting, "repression", and observer bias

  • get corroborative evidence

New cards
19

major threats to validity in surveys

  • response style: habitual ways of responding

  1. response acquiescence (yeah saying)

  2. response deviation (nay saying)

  • social desirability: use forced choice between equally desirable/undesirable alternatives

  1. sampling issues

  • is the sample representative of the population?

  • is the response rate adequate?

  • volunteer problem: volunteers differ in various ways from non-volunteers, therefore limiting generality.

New cards
20

The Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient (r)

measures the direction and strength of the linear between 2 variables.

New cards
21

r = 0

no correlation between the 2 variables

New cards
22

r = -1

perfect negative correlation

New cards
23

r = +1

perfect positive correlation

New cards
24

Why doesn't a strong correlation imply causation?

A strong correlation does not imply a causation because there may be a third variable resulting in the correlation.

New cards
25

Why doesn't a '0' correlation necessarily imply a lack of relationship between two measures?

A '0' correlation does not necessarily imply a lack of relation between the two measures because there could be a truncated range (too little of data) resulting in the relationship not being linear.

New cards
26

what 3 things does "control" denote?

  1. a control condition, for purposes of comparison

  2. the treatment is produced or manipulated

  3. certain aspects of the experimental setting are held constant

New cards
27

independent variable

variable that is manipulated

New cards
28

dependent variable

variable being measured

New cards
29

control variable

variable that is kept constant by the experimenter

New cards
30

retrospective studies

A study that monitors people who have been exposed to an environmental hazard at some time in the past.

  • extraneous variables may not be comparable

New cards
31

true experiments

designs in which the researcher manipulates all of the independent variables.

  • the experimenter can directly control the variables at the same rate, therefore allowing for equal comparison.

New cards
32

Critique the following statement: When there are no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, we can safely conclude that the independent variable does not have an effect.

When there is no difference between the experimental and control groups, this is termed a null effect. It is difficult to interpret the cause and we cannot safely include that the independent variable does not have an effect. The reason may be due to:

  1. IV having no effect

  2. IV not adequately manipulated

  3. Problem with the DV (ex: floor or ceiling effects)

  4. Insufficient control of extraneous (control) variables

New cards
33

interaction

When effects produced by one IV are not the same across levels of a second IV (one IV depends on the level of another IV).

New cards
34

Who is responsible for overseeing that research at universities involving human subjects is conducted ethically?

The IRB is responsible for overseeing that research at universities involving human subjects.

New cards
35

What are the major criteria for defining a research project as "ethical"?

For a project to be ethical, they need to follow the APA guidelines:

  1. informed consent

  2. confidentiality

  3. debriefing

  4. deception

New cards
36

What is the rationale for the claim that animals have rights and should not be used as subjects in research projects?

The rational for the claim that animals should have rights and should not be used as subjects in research projects is:

  1. all animals can suffer (animals = humans; animals, like humans, have rights)

  2. "A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy" (PETA)

  • species-ism is like racism

New cards
37

What is the counter-argument put forth by Cohen (1986) regarding animal rights?

The counter-argument put forth by Cohen is that animals do not have a moral "sense".

New cards
38

Explain two advantages of using animals as research subjects.

  1. Neuroscience

  • recovery from brain damage

  • fetal alcohol syndrome

  • effects of aging on learning and memory

  • Alzheimers and Parkinsonism

  1. Alleviation of pain- discovery of pain suppression system- endorphins

New cards
39

who is responsible for overseeing that research at universities with animals is conducted ethically AND sets the standards governing proper use and care of animal subjects?

A. IACUC B. APA Guidelines C. NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals D. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Regulations

New cards
40

method of tenecity

A method of acquiring knowledge in which information is accepted as true because it has always been believed or because superstition supports it

long held beliefs

New cards
41

method of authority

A method of acquiring knowledge in which a person relies on information or answers from an expert in the subject area.

rely on experts

New cards
42

the scientific method

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

New cards
43

the scientific method is both...

empirical and analytical

New cards
44

The scientific method is empirical as it is...

based on information perceived by the senses. It is based on data obtained by systematic observation.

New cards
45

systematic observation

careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting

New cards
46

Causal Observation

engage on a daily basis

ex: walking by animals at the zoo

New cards
47

causal inference

A statement about cause and effect that claims that a change in one variable is the cause of a change in another variable.

New cards
48

causality requires...

  1. covariation

  2. temporal order

  3. other factors to be ruled out (i.e., controlled)

New cards
49

self-correcting

a system of challenges by which scientific claims can be verified.

~ importance of replication ~

New cards
50

The scientific method is analytic as it is

taking a complex phenomena and breaking it down into constituent parts.

It can be confirmed by synthesis (qualitative and quantitative analysis).

  • Real ex: in a chemistry lab

  • Theoretical ex: motivation for hunger, sex, and money by studying behavior

New cards
51

experimentation

manipulate variables thought to underlie the phenomenon (i.e. IV - the manipulated variable; DV - the measured variable/the effect)

New cards
52

experimental group

independent variable + extraneous variables

New cards
53

covariation

the amount of change in one variable that is consistently related to the change in another variable of interest

as x changes, y changes

New cards
54

control group

no independent variable + extraneous variable

New cards
55

temporal order

the change in x precedes the change in y

New cards
56

extraneous variable

Something unwanted or unexpected that might affect the dependent variable.

New cards
57

null effects

a finding when there are no differences between the experimental and control groups

New cards
58

does confirmation prove the theory?

no, confirmation does not "prove" the theory; only disconfirmation is useful (falsifiability)

New cards
59

advantages of multiple IV's

  • more efficient than multiple single experiments

  • better experimental control (easier to hold control variables constant with multiple single experiments)

  • allows for interactions

New cards
60

Falsifiability

a feature of a scientific theory, in which it is possible to collect data that will prove the theory wrong

New cards
61

ceiling effect

all the scores are squeezed together at the high end

New cards
62

floor effect

all the scores cluster at the low end

New cards
63

why use animals in research?

  1. ethics

  2. experimental control

New cards
64

goals of observational research

  1. to describe behavior as first step in future experimental studies (i.e. predatory behavior of cats; mating behavior in stickleback fish)

  2. to answer specific questions (i.e. do parents treat their sons and daughters differently in science museums?)

New cards
65

Types of uses for animal research

A. Biomedical / behavioral research B. Teaching C. Drug & product testing

New cards
66

threats to validity

Possible problems in a study's design

  1. observer bias

  2. reactivity

New cards
67

observer bias

systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations

New cards
68

objection to animal research

  1. animal welfare

  2. animal "rights"

New cards
69

to prevent observer bias...

  • use well-developed coding system and operational definitions

  • use rigorous observer training

  • assess inter-rater reliability

  • keep observers "blind" to experimenter's hypotheses

New cards
70

moderates

persons who do not hold extreme political views

New cards
71

militants

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA); against use of animals in research

New cards
72

correlational research

a statistical association between variables; variables are measured, not manipulated as in experiments (ex: ovarian cancer and tea)

New cards
73

terrorists

Animal Liberation Front (ALF); effectively end animal testing with violence

New cards
74

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology.

New cards
75

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

New cards
76

deception

Sometimes, it may be necessary to withhold some information from participants. This is to minimize participant's reactions.

  • deception is not permissible if it inflicts physical or psychological damage on participants (Milgram shock)

New cards
77

risk/benefit ratio

analysis of whether the research is important enough to warrant placing participants at risk.

New cards
78

vulnerable populations

  • children

  • prisoners

  • mentally and physically handicapped

  • pregnant women and fetuses

  • animals??

New cards
79

scientific fraud

  • Plagiarism

  • Exaggerating data to make it look more significant

  • Fabricating data

  • Excluding data that goes against your hypotheses

New cards
80

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

Researchers in this experiment were studying the effects of syphilis, but once a cure was developed, they did not provide it to the study participants.

New cards
81

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment involving animals for ethics and methodology.

New cards
82

APA Guidelines

  1. informed consent

  2. confidentiality

  3. debriefing

  4. deception

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 41 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(6)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 72 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 119 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 198 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard148 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard212 terms
studied byStudied by 72 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)