developmental psych exam 2

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cognition

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188 Terms
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cognition

the activity of knowing & processing, through which knowledge is acquired

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flexible question-answer techniques, standardization

piaget's clinical method involved _____ rather than _____

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schema

an organized way of thinking or acting that allows us to interpret our experiences

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example of a behaviorist schema

grasping a block or a bottle of milk

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example of a symbolic schema

creating a mental model of a horse or bear

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adaptation

adjusting to the demands of one’s environment

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assimilation

interpreting new experiences in terms of already existing schema. (Ex: the first time a child sees a plane, they assume it is a large, loud bird)

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accommodation

the process of modifying existing schema to better fit new experiences (Ex: the first time a child sees a lamb, they assume its a dog and are corrected; they now have to modify what they know of as a dog and introduce the schema of a lamb)

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disequilibrium

cognitive conflict, which a person attempts to resolve through, for example, accommodation

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sensory-motor stage

piaget's first stage of intellectual development (0-18 months)

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reflex activity substage

birth-1 month old, involves exercising inborn reflexes

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primary circular reactions substage

1-4 months, interesting acts on the child’s own body are repeated

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secondary circular reactions substage

4-8 months, repetition of interesting acts on objects

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coordination of secondary schemes substage

8-12 months, in which there is a combination of acts to solve a problem/achieve a goal

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tertiary circular reactions substage

12-18 months, an infant finds new ways to solve problems or produce interesting results

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beginning of thought substage

18-24 months first evidence of insight & ability to solve a problem mentally using symbols to stand for objects

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object permanence

a concept in which children realize that things don’t necessarily cease to exist just because they can no longer be detected by the five senses. this ability implies that the child can retain a mental image.

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example of object permanence

a child cries and reaches for a favorite toy they were playing with after it had been put inside a toy box

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18 months

piaget believed that object permanence was grasped at age _____, but recent evidence shows that it develops earlier than he thought.

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example of tertiary reactions

a child stuffing cereal in the mouth, then the ears, then the hair, then the floor, and is experimenting to find new solutions to problems

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example of beginning of thought

a child is not allowed to play with dad’s ring of keys, but they discover that they can “pretend” that a ring of metal tabs are the car keys. they are using a symbol to stand in for the actual car keys

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preoperational stage

piaget's second stage of development, occurring from age 2-7, titled as such because, supposedly, logical thinking does not yet exist in this stage; is coupled with increased symbolic capacity and language usage.

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earlier

logical thinking actually occurs _____ than piaget thought

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egocentrism

a key feature of the preoperational stage, involves the inability to take another person’s point of view (quite literally so)

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example of egocentrism

a child holding up their fingers to mime how old they are when asked how old they are over the phone, believing that, since they can see their fingers, the person on the other line must be able to as well

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animism

an example of illogical thinking during the preoperational stage, involves attributing human qualities to non-human entities

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example of animism

thinking that clouds move by walking through the sky on their legs, because they get bored staying where they are

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lack of ability to conserve

an illogical feature of the preoperational stage involving a child’s notion that all aspects of things change once there is a change in some superficial appearance of an object, the idea that once something has changed, it is impossible to change it back

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reversibility

the process of mentally undoing an action

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concrete operations stage

piaget's third stage of development (ages 7-12) in which a child is noticeably less egocentric, can understand conservation, and is capable of utilizing reversibility; the way the world appears physically is something that the child can imagine readily and is capable of understanding

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seriation

the ability to order things from smallest to largest, shortest to tallest, lightest to darkest, etc., a feature of the concrete operations stage

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formal operational stage

piaget's fourth stage of development (entered at age 12), differentiated from the concrete operational stage in that these thinkers can think about and imagine hypotheticals and possibilities and engage in hypothetical deductive thinking

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example of hypothetical deductive thinking

a teacher asks their class what would happen if gravity didn’t exist, and a student answers that they would have to redesign classrooms with desks on the ceiling; the child can invent ideas that are contrary to actual facts

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generating all possible hypotheses

the first step in hypothetical deductive thinking

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more likely to rebel against the inconsistencies they are able to detect in the world

one implication of formal operational thought is that adolescents are _____than children are.

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imaginary audience

the teen feels as though they are on display, much like an actor on a stage (ex: spilling water on your pants and refusing to go to class because people might stare at you)

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personal fable

a story the teen tells themselves about themselves that is not inherently true (“no one could experience the heartache that I have had since I broke up with my partner”; “I will never die”). this can cause teens to take unnecessary risks

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post-formal thinking

goes beyond Piaget and beyond formal operations., involving a consideration of relativistic thinking

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absolutist thinking

involves the notion that there is only one right answer to a question (one truth)

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relativistic thinking

assumes that there may be a number of answers to a given question

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absolutist, relativistic

perry found that many students tended to be _____ in their thinking when they first entered college, but grew to be _____ thinkers by the end of college

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characteristics of post-formal thinking

understanding that knowledge is relative, accepting that the world is full of contradictions, and integrating contradictions into a much larger understanding

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do not

older adults (65+) _____ perform as well as younger adults on formal operational tasks

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describing, explaining

piaget’s theory does a nice job of _____ development, but it does a poor job of _____ it.

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sociocultural theories

suggest that in order to help students learn, teachers should make learning a cooperative activity among peers

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scaffolding

involves the guided assistance that a skilled individual provides to a less skilled person; as the student’s performance improves, the teacher or parent provides less and less assistance

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private speech

what we say to ourselves under our breath, suggested by vygotsky to be a sign of cognitive maturing

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example of private speech

4-year-old jackie mutters to herself the order of blocks as she stacks them while playing

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charles spearman’s formula for intelligence

g + s; "g" referring to general intelligence, "s" referring to specific types of intelligence (reading comprehension, arithmetic, spatial ability, etc.)

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fluid intelligence

reflects skills that are not learned or taught in school/life, but are innate (inborn) intellectual capacity

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examples of fluid intelligence

visual-spatial skills, inductive reasoning (reasoning from the particular to the general), verbal nonsense memory

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crystalized intelligence

reflects skills that are learned in school and through the process of living

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examples of crystalized intelligence

vocabulary, reading comprehension, & general information

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decreases, increasing

as fluid intelligence _____, crystallized intelligence is _____

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gardner’s theory of intelligence

reflects the notion that no single IQ score can meaningfully assess intelligence

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interpersonal intelligence

exceptional sensitivity to others’ motivations and moods

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bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

use of one’s body to create or perform things, like athletics and dance

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spatial intelligence

the ability to visually understand and interpret things in 2 and 3 dimensions, as is evident in the work of architects who visually and mentally transform structures and buildings

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speed of habituation score

best reflector of later intelligence from infancy; intelligent infants are ones that tend to get bored with familiar material more quickly (and thus seek out more novel information)

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cumulative deficit hypothesis

used to explain how the negative effects of an impoverished environment snowball over time to create lower and lower IQ scores as a child gets older

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early intervention programs

tend to result in IQ gains to some extent, but these gains tend to fade as the program ends

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terminal drop

a rapid decline in elderly peoples’ intellectual abilities a few months/years prior to their death

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culture fair test

a test that includes questions that are equally familiar or unfamiliar to kids from all cultures. few tests meet this standard, and there are no culture-free tests

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terman’s longitudinal study of gifted children

indicated that children with IQs of 130 and above are (generally) well adjusted, mentally mature, happy, healthy, & productive

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advanced language

one primary way that gifted children stand out is through their _____ skills

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information processing perspective

sees changes in adolescents’ cognitive abilities as evidence of gradual transformations in the capacity to change, to use, and to store information

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risk factors that have a negative impact on a child’s IQ score

a father being absent from the family, having a mother with poor mental health, and the head of the household being unemployed

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creativity

the ability to produce novel responses that are valued by others, involving the production of ideas that are original and meaningful

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convergent thinking

involves tasks with one correct answer

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example of convergent thinking

how much is 5+3

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divergent thinking

involves tasks where a variety of answers to one question are possible

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ideational fluency

involves the ability to generate many interesting new ideas

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rarely

research on intelligence and creativity has shown that highly creative people _____ have below-average IQs

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childhood adversity

many early studies suggested that _____ was the driving force behind childhood creativity, as children may use fantasy play as a form of escapism

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methods to foster creativity

allowing a child the freedom to explore their environment, allowing them to experiment, and encouraging nonconformity (NOT warmness and closeness between parent and child).

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simon & bennet's IQ test

developed in france in order to be able to identify kids who were too “dull” intellectually to be able to benefit from the regular school system/curriculum, places children on a “bell curve” of scores

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looking-glass self

our understanding of self being a reflection of how others respond to us; a reflective appraisal of others’ views of us

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"big five" traits of personality

Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN)

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self-recognition

the act of an infant recognizing themselves and their appearance in a reflection/photograph, developed at around age 18 months; most newborns have no sense of self

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categorical self

involves classifying oneself into different social categories, the first of which are usually age and gender

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temperament

a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy; can sometimes be shaped by environment

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easy temperament

characterized by happiness and openness to new experiences, summarizing the majority of children

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difficult temperament

involves high irritability and negative reactions to change

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slow-to-warm-up temperament

involves a child who is relatively inactive and has mild reactions to changes in routine

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