Child Development Exam 3

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Identity

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Identity

Beliefs, values, memories, relationships, and experiences that define who we are; considered to be fluid.

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Minority Identity

More likely to draw attention.

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Concept of "Me"

(develops at 2 years) Mirror self-recognition Pronouns Visual perspective Possessiveness Name

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Autobiographical Memory

Coherent set of memories about ones life.

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Industry v. Inferiority

Child desires to prove their ability to perform tasks.

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Social Comparison

Comparing oneself to others; helps to more realistically consider other perspectives.

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Identity v. Role Confusion

Figuring out what you want to be/become.

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Self-Complexity

Defining self in multiple ways and thinking abstractly.

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Marcia's Identity Status

The process by which crisis and commitment leads to identity development.

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Identity Diffusion

Lack of commitment and crisis.

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Identity Foreclosure

Firm commitment with lack of question/crisis.

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Identity Moratorium

Active exploration of an identity with little commitment.

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Identity Acheivement

Readiness to commit to an identity after active exploration.

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Rite of Passage

Formal, socially constructed ritual to signify identity development, "coming-of-age".

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Trends in Self-Esteem

High in preschool years but declines throughout development Higher in men Good to be high, but not in excess Promoted through process-based praise Inhibited by too much social entertainment

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Thin Ideal

Unrealistic portrayal of thinness for women.

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Muscular Ideal

Unrealistic portrayal of muscularity for men.

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Impression Management

Controlling others perceptions.

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Gender Identity

your identity as it is experienced with regard to your individuality as male or female, developed as early as 2 years old.

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Gender Stability

Convinced that certain toys, clothes, and hairstyles are appropriate for girls or boys, developed by age 4-5.

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Gender Constancy

Increased awareness of sex/gender differences, age 5-7. Thought to be permanent by age 8.

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Sex

Biological differences.

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Gender

Socialized differences based on roles and behaviors that are reinforced.

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Gender Expression

How you present your gender.

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Intersex

Umbrella term for differences in sex traits.

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Cisgender

Identifying as same sex assigned at birth.

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Transgender

Refers to the many ways gender identity can differ from sex assigned at birth.

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Gender Non-Conforming

Don't assign to any particular gender identity.

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Gender Fluidity

Gender is more fluid than dichotomous.

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Queer Attraction Model

Awareness Exploration Deepening Commitment Internalization

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Human Rights Campaign

2017 survey across LGBTQ teens in U.S. that reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, rejection, and insecurity.

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Behaviorism

Gender consistent with whichever behavior is reinforced.

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Social Cognitive Theory

Children imitate gender constant behaviors that they are exposed to.

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Humanism

Striving for affirmation from peers.

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Evolutionary Theory

Males and females pursue attractiveness in gendered manners.

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Racial Socialization

Process of teaching and preparing children about discrimination they may experience.

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Effects of Racism

Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination Institutional racism Microaggressions

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Counter Programming

Rewriting the narrative of gender/racial stereotypes.

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Dr. Clark's Classic Doll Experiment

Black children preferred playing with a white doll.

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Colorism

Discrimination based upon skin tone.

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Phinney's Stages of Racial Identity

Diffused racial identity Racial identity foreclosure Moratorium Achieved racial identity

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Ethnic/Racial Identity

Knowledge and attitudes about the ethnic/racial group belonged to.

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Ethnic/Racial Constancy

Understanding ethnicity/race to be consistent across time and setting.

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Moral Judgement

How we reason moral issues/draw conclusions. Influenced by many aspects, emotional and social maturity is foundational.

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Prosocial Behavior

Extending helpfulness without personal benefit, from having empathy and sympathy.

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Antisocial Behavior

Hurts others deliberately, aggression in childhood is a red flag.

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Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Pre-conventional Conventional Post-conventional

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Moral Knowledge

Basic understanding of right and wrong.

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Piaget's Stages of Morality

Pre-moral Heteronomous morality Immanent judgement Autonomous morality

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Discovery Learning

Children allowed to discover information and understanding for themself.

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Guided Play

Children learn in a prepared environment where adults can scaffold learning.

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Universal Design

Environment that caters to children with all levels of developmental capabilities.

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Make-Believe Play

Strengthens the ability to control impulses and understand social interactions.

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Characteristics of Play

Voluntary/spontaneous For enjoyment Active engagement Nonliteral

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Play Therapy

Uses play as a form of communicating/triangulating so that children can open up about feelings.

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Types of Physical Play

Physical activity Rhythmic stereotypes Exercise Rough-and-tumble

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Parten's 6 Levels of Play

Unoccupied Onlooker Solitary Parallel Associative Cooperative

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Rejected-Aggressive

Rejected by peers due to aggression.

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Rejected-Withdrawn

Rejected by peers due to social anxiety

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Rejection Sensitivity

How sensitive a child is to rejection.

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Clique

An exclusive circle of adolescents with a common purpose.

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Crowd

Larger group of adolescents with something in common, but aren't necessarily friends.

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Peer Pressure

Encouragement to conform; becomes negative when it defies authority.

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Selection

Teens adopt a more homogenous group; selecting those who share values and abandoning those who don't.

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Social Competance

"Soft skills", vital for success and linked to prosocial behavior/emotional and relational health.

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Parasocial Romantic Relationships

One-sided relationships in which one person is idolized.

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Facilitation

Enabling behaviors that would unlikely have happened on their own.

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Deviancy Training

Destructive peer support that influences rebellion against authority.

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Popular Bully

Uses advanced social intelligence to manipulate peer group and achieve dominance.

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Unpopular Bully

Lower levels of social intelligence; attacks and abuses others as a response.

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Characteristics of a Bullying Victim

Unaccepted Anxious/solitary/vulnerable Social rival Minority Internalizing behaviors

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Bullying Circle

knowt flashcard image
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Systemic Intervention

Clear rules enforced and support offered to victims; more effective than zero-tolerance policy.

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Bystander Effect

Refusal to defend a victim or denounce bullying publicly.

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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)

Developmental disruptions that have lifelong consequences. Prevention includes: Economic support Promotion of positive social norms Ensuring strong start Teaching skills Connecting with caring adults/positive activities

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Family

Group of related peoples (definition is very fluid).

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Nuclear Family

Husband, wife, and children.

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Extended Family

Family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives

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Shared Environment

Influence that diminishes with age (family).

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Non-Shared Environment

Influence that expands with age (friends/school).

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Family Structure

Family type based upon the constellation of family.

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Supports Success in Single Parent Household

Financial stability Emotional stability Father involvement Parents on good terms Stress management Outside support

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Coparenting

Shares responsibilities, promotes time spent with child, and encourages connectedness.

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Open Adoption

Child and birth parents and still in contact.

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