U3 Chem H. - Fung

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Photon =

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2023-24 Mr. Fung's - formula page use = ok

28 Terms

1

Photon =

a particle that holds a quantum of light/electromagnetic radiation

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2

Quantum =

Quanta =

Single unit of energy (quanta is the plural form)

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3
  1. Amplitude =

  2. Wavelength =

  3. Frequency =

(include units + sketch examples)

  1. height of wave from origin to peak (m)

  2. distance from crest to crest (m)

  3. how fast the wave oscillates (Hz)

<ol><li><p>height of wave from origin to peak (m)</p></li><li><p>distance from crest to crest (m)</p></li><li><p>how fast the wave oscillates (Hz)</p></li></ol>
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4

Long-wavelength = __ frequency

Short-wavelength = __ frequency

Wavelength and frequency of light are ______ to each other

long-wavelength = low frequency

short-wavelength = high frequency

inversely proportional

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5

smaller mass = ___ waves

bigger mass = ___ waves

smaller mass = longer waves (more observable)

bigger mass = shorter waves (less observable)

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6
  1. Light =

  2. Has properties of waves when _____

  3. Has properties particles of when ____

  1. form of electromagnetic radiation

  2. moving through space (when energy is being transmitted)

  3. interacting with matter (can only be absorbed by electrons in quanta)

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7

Matterwaves =

wavelike behavior of particles

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8
  1. Visible light is (continuous/discrete)

  2. Line spectrums/atomic emission spectrums are (continous/discrete)

  1. continuous

  2. discrete

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9

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principal =

it’s impossible to know the position and moment of particles exactly

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10

ground state =

n = 1

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11

excited state =

when electron absorbs energy and moves up an energy level

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12

The photoelectric effect =

(Define quanta)

a light-hitting metal experiment that proved that electrons can only absorb specific amounts of energy, aka, quanta, aka, photons of light

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13

Conversions:

  1. meter → kilometer

  2. meter → millimeter

  3. meter → micrometer

  4. meter → nanometer

  1. x 10^-3

  2. x 10³

  3. x ^10^6

  4. x10^9

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14

Units of:

  1. Frequency

  2. Waves

  3. Energy

  1. Hz

  2. m

  3. J

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15

How to calculate energy based. on frequency

ex.). A photon has a frequency of 2.68 × 10^6 Hz. Calculate its energy

(#1 of Practice problems)

E = 1.78 × 10^-27 J

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16

How to calculate frequency based on wavelength

ex.) Find the frequency of a green light that has a wavelength of 545 nm

5.50 × 10^14 Hz

Don’t forget units!

<p>5.50 × 10^14 Hz</p><p>Don’t forget units!</p>
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17

How to calculate wavelength and energy using frequency

ex.) Find the energy and wavelength of a photon of light with a frequency of 6.165 × 10^14 Hz

(#2 of Practice Problems)

E = 4.1 × 10^-19 J

Wavelength = 4.87 × 10^-7 m

don’t foget units!!

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18

How to calculate number of photons

ex.) Calculate the. number of photons having a wavelength of 10.0 micrometers required to produce 1.0 kj of energy

(#6 of Practice problems)

5.0 × 10^ 22 photons

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19

How to calculate energy per photon

ex.)

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20

How to tell the type of electromagnetic radiation?

Frequency

<p>Frequency</p>
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21

Electron configuration of an atom =

distribution of electrons among orbitals

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22

Explain how electrons move to higher and lower energy levels

an electron absorbs a certain quanta of energy → moves into a certain higher energy level

an electron loses certain quanta of energy and emits light → moves down energy levels

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23

Principal energy level =

orbital where the electron is located (its sublevel)

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24
  1. Bohr model =

  2. Quantum mechanic model/electron cloud model =

  1. Electrons have orbits (clear, determined paths) dictated by quanta

  2. Treats the election as a wave: Electrons have orbitals— where the electron is most likely to be based on its principal energy level— but can vary in shape by sublevels (s, p, d, etc)

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25

Light emitted from an electron moving energy down energy levels is directly proportional to _______

the energy change of the electron

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26

3 rules for elec configs.

Aufbau: Electrons occupy lowest levels first (Aufbau, like ‘A’ B C)

Pauli Exclusion:: Orbitals can hold at most 2 electrons, only if they spin in opposite directions (Pauli, like “pair”)

Hund’s: Single electrons fill up as many orbitals in a level as possible before doubling up

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27

How to do elec configs? (not noble gas notation

ex) Find the electron configuration of KNO₃ (first compound of data page of L

  1. Find your element on the table (K = Potassium)

  2. Go through all the elements before your element and write down their orbital + amnt of elecs in that orbital, aka, how many elements in that group

a: 1s²+2s²+2p^6+3s²+3p^6+4s^1

<ol><li><p>Find your element on the table (K = Potassium)</p></li><li><p>Go through all the elements before your element and write down their orbital + amnt of elecs in that orbital, aka, how many elements in that group</p></li></ol><p>a: <strong>1s²+2s²+2p^6+3s²+3p^6+4s^1</strong></p>
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28

How to do noble gas notation?

ex) Find the electron configuration of KNO₃ (first compound of data page of L

  1. Find your element on the table (K = Potassium)

  2. Go up one row and all the way to column 18 to find your noble gas and box it [Ar]

  3. After your noble gas, continue the configuration until you reach your element

    • continue config by adding each orbital for each element (K, after Ar, is s1) (you can know what sublevel is each element based on where it is on the periodic table)

a: [Ar] 4s1

<ol><li><p>Find your element on the table (K = Potassium)</p></li><li><p>Go up one row and all the way to column 18 to find your noble gas and box it [Ar]</p></li><li><p>After your noble gas, continue the configuration until you reach your element</p><ul><li><p>continue config by adding each orbital for each element (K, after Ar, is s1) (you can know what sublevel is each element based on where it is on the periodic table)</p></li></ul></li></ol><p>a: <strong>[Ar] 4s1</strong></p>
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