American Nation II Chapter 18-19 (Gilded Age & Growth of Cities)

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US History

64 Terms

1

25 million

number of immigrants who came to the US between 1850 and 1920

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2

British, Irish, and German

immigrant groups that were the most common during the first wave of immigration

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3

southern/eastern European (Italian, Russian, etc.)

immigrant groups that were the most common during the second wave of immigration

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4

The New Colossus

poem written to help raise money to build the pedestal for the Statue of Liberty

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5

Ellis Island

immigration processing center that opened in New York Harbor in 1892

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6

social segregation

term for the informal/unintentional division of neighborhoods based on income or ethnicity

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7

enclave

a distinct neighborhood that forms in a city based on the common characteristics of its inhabitants (such as race or culture)

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8

How the Other Half Lives

book published by photojournalist Jacob Riis that was designed to show wealthy Americans how wide the gap was between rich and poor in the US

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9

1893

year of the worst economic depression the US had seen up to that point

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10

sweatshops

the term for small factory rooms filled with many workers

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11

12 hours

typical length of a workday for wageworkers during the 19th century

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12

white-collar

term for professional, office, or administrative jobs that developed in the 19th century

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13

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

nationwide strike that began when the B&O Railroad cut wages and raised dividends at the same time; one of the first major steps toward labor organization in the US

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14

Knights of Labor

first mass organization of the U.S. working class; began as a secret society; designed to bridge gaps between common wageworkers & master craftsmen, men & women, race, etc.

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15

American Federation of Labor

organization that coordinated the activities of craft unions throughout the U.S.; focused on workplace issues like wages & working conditions

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16

Samuel Gompers

founded the American Federation of Labor

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17

Haymarket Riot

rally called to protest the killing of strikers by the Chicago police; bomb was thrown into the police, resulting ultimately in several deaths; turned sentiment against labor unions

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18

May Day rally

nationwide general strike organized in support of the 8-hour workday

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19

William "Boss" Tweed

leader of the Tammany Hall political machine & most notorious city boss of the period

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20

political machine

highly organized political party designed to win elections & reward supporters

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21

Tammany Hall

Democratic political machine in New York City that was the most famous political machine

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22

World's Columbian Exposition

largest world's fair in U.S. history held in 1893; held in Chicago

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23

White City

nickname for the fairgound of the Chicago World's Fair

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24

13th Amendment

amendment that abolished slavery

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25

14th Amendment

amendment that established the citizenship process, due process and equal protection for all citizens

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26

15th Amendment

amendment that established universal male suffrage

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27

speculation

term for buying/selling stocks aggressively; risky investments

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28

railroads

first big business in the US

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29

capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production & their operation for profit (emphasis on competition)

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30

industrial capitalism

system in which economic power is dominated by industrialists operating as individuals

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31

finance capitalism

system in which investment is sponsored by banks & bankers (power is held by financial institutions rather than individual capitalists)

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32

laissez-faire

"to leave alone," capitalism free from government regulation

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33

consolidation

the merging of existing companies into a large corporation

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34

Andrew Carnegie

investor/philanthropist who built the biggest steel business in the world during the Gilded Age

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35

vertical integration

strategy where a company controls every aspect of the business

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36

John D. Rockefeller

oil tycoon who popularized the use of the trust as a business structure

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37

trust

representatives of a company (trustees) hold stock in other companies & essentially create a monopoly

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38

horizontal integration

strategy where one person/company controls all of one kind of business

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39

Standard Oil

Company which controlled 90% of the oil business by 1890

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40

Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone

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41

Thomas Edison

invented the phonograph, motion picture camera, incandescent light bulb filament

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42

Robber Barons

negative term often used to describe wealthy businessmen who controlled the largest industries in the US during the Gilded Age

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43

JP Morgan

leader in finance capitalism & prominent banker during the Gilded Age

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44

Darwinism

Charles Darwin's biological theory that the process of evolution is determined by natural selection (adaptation to environment)

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45

Social Darwinism

the application of the idea of natural selection to the economic/social world

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46

spoils system

system in which supporters of winning political candidates were rewarded with government jobs

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47

Jim Crow laws

laws that established legalized segregation in the South

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48

disenfranchisement

depriving someone or a group of people of the right to vote

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49

lynching

informal & unauthorized executions, frequently by a mob; usually racially motivated

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50

Ida B. Wells

leader of the antilynching movement

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51

Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton

women who founded the National Woman Suffrage Association (1869)

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52

temperance movement

movement to end drunkenness in the US

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53

Women's Christian Temperance Union

organization founded to protest against alcohol/drunkenness in the US

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54

Frances Willard

radical president of the WCTU

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55

Stalwarts

faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that supported the patronage system

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56

Half-Breeds

faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that was less openly corrupt

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57

Mugwumps

faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age that reformers who advocated against the spoils system and in favor of civil service reform

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58

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883 law that established the Civil Service Commission, put jobs under merit system with examinations required, and made it illegal for federal employees to contribute to campaigns

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59

Interstate Commerce Act

first federal law regulating railroads; little enforcement power

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60

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890 law that outlawed trusts, said businesses couldn't enter agreements to restrict competition

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61

protective tariff

a tax on imported goods designed to stimulate American industry

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62

free silver

the idea that the government should buy silver & mint silver currency (instead of only gold)

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63

Greenback Labor Party

political party that didn't want paper money to be tied to the gold supply

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64

gold standard

system in which the value of currency was linked directly to gold

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