Chemistry - Unit 2 Atomic Structure Test

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28 Terms

1

isotope

atom/group atoms with the same atomic number (#of protons) but with different numbers of neutrons

<p>atom/group atoms with the same atomic number (#of protons) but with different numbers of neutrons</p>
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2

ions

atom/ group of atoms w/ a + or - charge

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3

cation

a positively charged ion

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4

anion

a negatively charged ion

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5

test your knowledge: an atom has 53 protons, 74 neutrons, and 54 electrons, what is the charge of this atom?

-1 charge

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6

atomic mass

weighted average mass of atoms, protons + neutrons

<p>weighted average mass of atoms, protons + neutrons</p>
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7

percent abundance

percentage amount of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element

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8

Fission

Splits an atom into 2 or more smaller ones

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9

Describe Democritus' Atom

  • The atom is the smallest

  • There empty space between atoms

  • Atoms have no internal structure, completely solid

<ul><li><p>The atom is the smallest</p></li><li><p>There empty space between atoms</p></li><li><p>Atoms have no internal structure, completely solid</p></li></ul>
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10

What was Dalton's Atomic Theory?

Atoms of different elements have different size, mass, and properties.

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11

What was JJ Thomson's Experiment?

Cathode Ray Experiment

  • An electric charge was passed through an empty tube where all the air was sucked out

  • The tube had a fluorescent screen placed in the back

  • The screen allowed the electricity beam to be seen as a dot

  • He then placed two oppositely charged electric coils inside the tube

  • This resulted in the charge being deflected from the negative coil, and, because like charges repel each other, the charge also proved to be negatively charged

<p>Cathode Ray Experiment</p><ul><li><p>An electric charge was passed through an empty tube where all the air was sucked out</p></li><li><p>The tube had a fluorescent screen placed in the back</p></li><li><p>The screen allowed the electricity beam to be seen as a dot</p></li><li><p>He then placed two oppositely charged electric coils inside the tube</p></li><li><p>This resulted in the charge being deflected from the negative coil, and, because like charges repel each other, the charge also proved to be negatively charged</p></li></ul>
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12

What did Thomson discover?

~ELECTRONS BABY~

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13

What is Thomson's atomic model called? What does it look like?

Plum Pudding Model

  • Sticky pudding: positively charged fluid that fills an atom

  • Plums: negatively charged electrons that are suspended in the fluid

<p>Plum Pudding Model</p><ul><li><p>Sticky pudding: positively charged fluid that fills an atom</p></li><li><p>Plums: negatively charged electrons that are suspended in the fluid</p></li></ul>
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14

Thomson's model is okay, but what was wrong with it?

Atoms aren't filled with "positively charged fluid", and electrons aren't just floating around aimlessly like a bird

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15

James Chadwick did stuff too ig. What subatomic particle did Chad discover?

neutrons ._.

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16

Earnest Rutherford was earnest to find out more about these atom thingies. What was his experiment?

Gold Foil Experiment

  • Alpha particles fired at a piece of gold foil

  • Most of the alpha particles went straight through

<p>Gold Foil Experiment</p><ul><li><p>Alpha particles fired at a piece of gold foil</p></li><li><p>Most of the alpha particles went straight through</p></li></ul>
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17

What did Rutherford's Experiment prove?

Atoms are mostly empty space

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18

What flaws are there with Rutherford's Experiment?

Rutherford created the planetary model, which is incorrect, because electrons don't have a set circular orbit around the nucleus

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19

Who created the Quantum/ Electron Cloud Model

Erwin Schrodinger

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20

What did the Quantum Model discover?

That electrons exist in "clouds" of probability

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21

Name each subatomic particle, their location in the atom, mass, and charge.

  • Protons, found in the nucleus, positively charged

  • Neutrons, found in the nucleus, neutrally charged

  • Electrons, circling around the nucleus, negatively charged

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22

What makes each element unique?

The number of protons

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23

Determine the average atomic mass of U-235 0.720% and U-238 99.28%

The average atomic mass of this is 237.9784

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24

Determine the % abundancy for element X with two isotopes X-56 and X-58 with an avg atomic mass of 57.34 grams.

X-56 = 33 X-58 = 67

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25

Why are ions formed?

Ions are formed because atoms want to become more stable, therefore, gain or lose electrons.

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26

How many electrons in P -3 ion?

There are 18 electrons

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27

What is the charge on lead (Pb) with 78 electrons?

It is +4

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28

What electron configuration do most ions form?

Most ions form the electron configuration of a noble gas

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