Biblical Foundations Exam 1 Review

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66 Terms

1

Bronze Age

3300-1200

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2

Iron Age

1200-586

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3

Persian Period

586-333

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4

Hellenistic Period

333-37

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5

Emergence of Israel

1250

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6

Tribal League of Israel- Period of the Judges

1200-1020

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7

United Monarchy: Saul, David, Solomon- first temple built

1020-922

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8

Divided Monarchy: Israel and Judah

922-722

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9

Fall of Israel- Assyrian Deportation

722

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10

D source and reform of Jerusalem cult by King Josiah of Judah

622

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11

Fall of Judah; destruction of Jerusalem and first temple by Babylonians

586

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12

Babylonian Exile

586-539

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13

Cyrus II of Persia defeats Babylonians and allows Judahites to return

539

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14

Building of second temple

520-515

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15

Alexander the Great takes control of Palestine

333

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16

Repression of Antiochus IV Epiphanes; Maccabean Revolt

167

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17

Have an understanding of the rationale behind studying the Bible in a university setting.
How is it different from studying the Bible for personal edification, moral exhortation, or
formulating Christian doctrine

Understanding the historical background allows us to understand the books of the bible and the historical context better

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18

Hebrew Bible/Tanakh

Includes Torah, Nevi’im (prophets), ketuvim (writings)

Written in Hebrew and Aramaic

Scripture for Jews/Hebrews

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19

Septuagint

Includes Hebrew bible + apocrypha/deuterocanonical books

Written in Greek

Scripture for Catholic/Orthodox Christians

Accepted as cannon 250-2nd century BCE

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20

Catholic/Orthodox

Contains Septuagint + new testament

Ancient Near Eastern and European (Greek, Latin, Coptic, Syriac, etc)

Catholics and Orthodox

Accepted as scripture 4th-5th century CE

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21

Protestant

Hebrew Bible minus Apocrypha + 27 new testament books

Written in modern European (German, French, English, Dutch)

Bible for Protestants

Accepted as scripture in 16th centry

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22

Canon

Rule or list- an official list of books

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23

Scripture

What is read in the liturgy (not privately), implies authority

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24

Bible

Scripture published by a press

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25

Canonization of Hebrew bible

Torah (Genesis-Deut) accepted as scripture in 6th-5th century BCE

Nevi-im (prophets) accepted as scripture in 4th century BCE

Ketuvim (writings)- late 1st century CE

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26

Apocrypha/ Deuterocanonical Books

Included in Septuagint and Catholic Bible

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27

What kinds of errors did scribes make when copying the text?

Errors of the eye, Errors of the ear, Deliberate changes. (Idk if we need examples of these

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28

Do we have an original copy (“autograph”) of any biblical book?

None

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29

What do textual critics do?

Studies ancient manuscripts and variant readings. Their job is to get as close to the autograph as possible, try to figure out why scribes made certain changes.

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30

What does a text critical footnote for the Hebrew Bible look like in the NRSV?

Begins with a diplomatic text (oldest complete copy, Leningrad codex), then do textual criticism when they encounter a problem

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31

What does a text critical footnote for the New Testament and Apocrypha look like
in the NRSV?

Begins with copies of books, quotes in other books and lectionaries then create an eclectic text

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32

What is the Masoretic Text (MT)?

Medieval copies of the Hebrew Bible with vowel
symbols

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33

What is the Leningrad Codex?

the oldest complete copy of the HB (= Masoretic
Text)

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34

What is a diplomatic text?

a complete ancient copy of the Bible; example:
Leningrad Codex

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35

What is an eclectic text?

a modern text comprised of many variant readings from many ancient copies

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36

haplography

skippung stuff

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37

dittography

repeating stuff

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38

homoioteleuton

similiar ending

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39

version

translation

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40

dynamic equivalence.

Translation that strives for readibility in the target language

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41

formal equivalence

Translation that strives for faithfulness to the source language

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42

source language

language you’re translating from

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43

target language

language you’re translating to

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44

Understand the differences between the NOAB and the NRSV.

NOAB= bible

NRSV= translation

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45

Myth

a narrative in which human beings and divine beings interact. many explain origins and explain the most important truths

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46

theology

talking about God

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47

christology

talking about Christ (low= jesus human, high= Jesus was never human)

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48

Modern def of history

An impersonal chain of causes and effects, values accuracy

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49

Biblical author def of history

Theology in a narrative form, very personal, values obedience

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50

Source Criticism

  1. We have the sources (named or unnamed)

  2. We dont have the source but the author names it

  3. We dont have the source and the author doesnt name it

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51

Synoptic

“seen together”

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52

Pericope

section of text that can stand on its own

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53

triple tradition

material shared by matthew, mark and luke

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54

double tradition

material shared by matthew annd luke. mostly teachings plus john baptists preaching and temptation in the wilderness

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55

Minor agreements

material shared by matthew and luke at the level of word, phrase and sentence and its narration

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56

What is Q, and in what hypothesis does it play a role?

Q is the source for double tradition (matthew and luke)

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57

What are M and L, and in what hypothesis do they play a role?

M is source for matthew and L is a source for Luke

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58

What are the four hypothetical sources for the Documentary Hypothesis?

J- YAHWIST: southern tribes and kings, 10th-9th century BCE (Source for Genesis 2:4-25) (EARLIEST)

E- Elohist: northern tribes/kings, 8th c BCE

D- Deuteronmist: Covenant, YHWH, only in Jerusalem, Jerusalem 622 BCE

P- Priestly: Both in Babylonia and Jerusalem (Genesis 1:1-2:4)

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59

Which gospel authors name themselves?

none

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60

Which gospels are attributed to eyewitnesses of Jesus’ ministry?

Matthew

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61

Which two gospels have infancy narratives and how can you tell them apart?

Matthew and Luke (Luke includes slaughter of innocents)

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62

To which gospel were the resurrection appearances probably added later?

Mark

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63

Which gospel presents Jesus as a teacher like Moses?

Matthew

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64

Which gospel presents Jesus as a prophet like Moses?

Luke

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65

What is a doublet?

The same story or similar story told twice

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66

Which creation accounts in Genesis come from which Documentary Hypothesis source?

Genesis 1:1-2:4 is the P source and Genesis 2:4-25 is the J source (earliest)

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