Unit 4 Chapter 5: History of the Periodic Table

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Cannizzaro

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31 Terms

1

Cannizzaro

presented a method for accurately measures atomic masses of atoms

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2

Mendeleev

arranged the 63 known elements by increasing atomic mass

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3

Moseley

organized elements according to increasing atomic number

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4

Periodic Law

the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

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5

A group elements

main group or representative elements; s & p blocks

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6

B group elements

transition metals; d block

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7

atomic radius (periodic table)

decreases across a period, increases down a group

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8

ionization energy (periodic table)

increases across a period, decreases down a group

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9

electronegativity (periodic table)

increases across a period, decreases down a group

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10

ion configuration

electron configuration, but +/- the lost/gained electrons

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11

period

horizontal rows across the periodic table

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12

group/family

vertical columns on the periodic table

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13

f block

inner transition metals

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14

noble gases

group 8A (VIIIA); full valence electrons

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15

metalloids

-found lining the staircase -have properties of both metals and non-metals -semiconductors of electricity

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16

ion

particle with a non-neutral (+ or -) charge

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17

cation

positive ion (+); electrons are lost

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18

anion

negative ion (-); electrons are gained

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19

atomic radius

half of the distance between nuclei in covalently bonded diatomic molecules

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20

ionic radii (+)

cations formed when metal atom loses one or more electrons, increases electronegativity

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21

ionic radii (-)

anions formed when nonmetallic atoms gain one or more electrons, decreases electronegativity

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22

neutral vs cation

cations are smaller than their corresponding neutral atom

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23

neutral vs anion

anions are bigger than their corresponding neutral atom

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24

ionization energy

the energy required to remove an electron from an atom

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25

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract (gain) electrons

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26

ion configuration

electron configuration + or - electrons gained/lost

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27

properties of metals

-located to the left of the staircase -good conductor of heat and electricity -malleable -ductile -high tensile strength -luster

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28

properties of alkali metals

-easily lose valence electron -most reactive metal group -never found pure in nature -react violently with water

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29

properties or alkaline-earth metals

-less reactive than alkali metals -never found pure in nature -loses two valence electrons

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30

properties of non-metals

-located to the right of the staircase -poor conductors of heat and electricity -brittle -many are gases at room temperature

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31

properties of halogens

-react vigorously with most metals to form salts -most reactive non-metal group

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