4a: The Organism in the Environment

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Tags and Description

51 Terms

1

population

a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place at the same time

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2

community

all of the populations living in the same area at the same time

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3

interdependence

if one species is removed from a community it can affect the whole community

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4

habitat

place where an organism lives

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5

ecosystem

all the biotic factors and all the abiotic factors that interact within an area at one time

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6

biotic factors

living components

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7

abiotic factors

non-living components

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8

do ecosystems vary in size and scale

yes

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9

what does ecology study

  • distribution of species

  • abundance of species

  • interactions between species

  • interactions between species and their abiotic environment

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10

ecologists

biologists that study interactions by investigating ecosystems

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11

quadrat

square frames made of wood or wire used to investigate population size

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12

how do we use quadrats

they are placed on the ground and the organisms within them are recorded

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13

what do quadrats help estimate

commonly the abundance of plant species

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14

what do we record to measure abundance in a quadrat

  • number of individual specoes

  • species richness

  • percentage cover

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15

species richness

total number of different species is recorded

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16

percentage cover

approximate percentage of the quadrat area in which an individual species is found is recorded

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17

when do we use percentage cover in investigating population size

when it is difficult to count individuals

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18

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - apparatus

  • 2 tape measures

  • quadrat

  • random number generator

  • species key

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19

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - method

  • use tape measures to lay out a survey area

  • use random number generator to create a set of coordinates to place first quadrat

  • count number of chosen species within quadrat

  • repeat for second quadrat

  • estimate population using equation

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20

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - equation for estimated population size

(total area / area sampled) x total number of species population counted

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21

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - results

compare abundance of study species in each survey area

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22

biotic factors influencing species abundance

  • competition

  • predator-prey relationships

  • interactions with other organisms within food chain

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23

abiotic factors influencing species abundance

  • light intensity

  • mineral availability

  • water availability

  • pH

  • temperature

  • salinity

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24

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - limitations

  • missing individual organisms when counting in a quadrat

  • difficult to identify species

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25

investigating population size in 2 different areas using quadrats - CORMS

C - study area

O - same species of quadrats

R - repeat for reliability

M1 - number of designated study species

S - size of quadrat, random way of quadrats, day of investigation

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26

biodiversity

range and variety of different species of organisms on earth or within an ecosystem

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27

what does biodiversity consider

  • species richness

  • variation within species

  • distribution and population size of species

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28

high biodiversity

  • lots of different species

  • lot of variation

  • even distribution

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29

how is biodiversity reduced

by human activities

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30

what do different species depend on each other for

  • food

  • shelter

  • maintenance of physical environment

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31

advantages of a high biodiversity

  • stability of ecosystems

  • reduced dependence

  • resilient to environmental impacts

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32

what is a food web used for

to demonstrate the importance of biodiversity in an ecosystem

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33

measuring biodiversity - apparatus

  • 2 tape measures

  • quadrat

  • random number generator

  • species key

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34

measuring biodiversity - method

  • use tape measures to lay out survey area

  • use random number generator to create a set of coordinates for first quadrat

  • count number of different species within quadrat

  • repeat for 10 quadrats

  • repeat for second survey area

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35

measuring biodiversity - results

  • compare number of different species

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36

measuring biodiversity - high biodiversity

larger number of different species

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37

how is the measurement of biodiversity simplistic?

doesn’t tell us about distribution or population size

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38

measuring biodiversity - limitations

  • easy to miss individual organisms

  • identifying and distinguishing between species

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39

measuring biodiversity - CORMS

C - study area

O - same species of quadrats

R - repeat for reliability

M1 - number of designated study species

S - size of quadrat, random way of quadrats, day of investigation

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40

abiotic factors that affect a community

  • light intensity

  • temperature

  • moisture levels

  • soil pH and mineral content

  • wind intensity and direction

  • carbon dioxide levels

  • oxygen levels

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41

light intensity

needed for photosynthesis

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42

temperature

affects rate of photosynthesis

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43

moisture levels

water for survival

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44

wind intensity and direction

affects transpiration

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45

carbon dioxide levels

required for photosynthesis

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46

oxygen levels

aquatic animals need high oxygen concentrations

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47

biotic factors that affect a community

  • availability of food

  • new predators

  • new pathogens

  • competitions

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48

availability of food

more food = higher chance of surviving and reproducing

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49

new predators

unbalances the ecosystem

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50

new pathogens

population may decline as a result of lack of immunity and resistance

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51

competition

if two species compete for resources and one is better adapted, then that species will outcompete the other

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