Casey Exam 1

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The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biological tissues.

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The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biological tissues.

radiobiology

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The effects of x-rays on humans is the result of interactions at the ______ _____

atomic level

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_____ are the building blocks of all matter

atoms

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_____ are the building blocks of living matter

cells

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______ _____ was the first person to identify the cell as the biological building block in 1665

Robert Hooke

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_____ ___ __________ accurately described the cell with the aid of his microscopic observations.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

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_________ & _______ showed conclusively that in all plants & animals, cells are the basic functional units of life. (this is the cell theory)

Schneider & Schwann

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The cell theory

  1. All living organisms are composed of cells

  2. Cells arise from pre-existing cells

  3. The cell is the basic unit of life

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In 1953 ______ & _____ described the structure of DNA.

Watson & Crick

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In the year 2000, this project resulted in the precise mapping of the 40,000 human genes?

the Human Genome Project

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What percentage of the body is made up of hydrogen & oxygen?

85%

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A group of cells that have the same purpose/perform the same activity?

tissues

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A Group of tissues working together in close association in order to perform a specialized function?

organ

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What is the term defined as a group of organs that work together to perform a common function?

system

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What is the term that describes the production of large molecules from smaller molecules?

Anabolism

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What is the term that describes the process of breaking larger molecules down into smaller molecules?

Catabolism

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Anabolism & catabolism are collectively known as?

metabolism

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All metabolic activity takes place in the?

cytoplasm

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This lipid-protein structure selectively allows small molecules & water to pass in & out of the cell

cell membrane

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Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, & nucleic acids are all calssified as what type of molecules?

organic molecules

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An organic molecule is life supporting & contains?

carbon

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What percentage of the body/cell is made up of water?

80%

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What macromolecule comprises 15% of the molecular composition of the body/cell?

protein

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What 2 macromolecules comprise 1% of the molecular composition of the body/cell?

carbohydrates & nucleic acid

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What macromolecule comprises 2% of the molecular composition of the body/cell?

lipids

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The chief function of this macromolecule in the human body is to provide fuel for cell metabolism.

carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates are also called saccharides (monosaccharides & disaccharides) which are?

sugars

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Simple/monosaccharides are?

glucose & fructose

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Complex/disaccharides are?

lactose, maltose, & sucrose

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Polysaccharides are?

starches

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____ is the radiation-sensitive target molecule

DNA

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DNA has what type of structural configuration?

double-helix

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DNA is found where?

the nucleus

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Besides DNA, what is the other type of nucleic acid found in the cell?

RNA

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RNA is mostly located where?

the cytoplasm

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Besides the cytoplasm, where else is the RNA housed?

the nucleolus

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DNA & RNA are macromolecules and are classified as what type of organic molecule?

nucleic acids

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What are the side rails of the DNA strain composed of?

sugar-phosphates

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The nitrogen-containing bases adenine & guanine are classified as?

purines

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The nitrogen-containing bases thymine & cytosine are classified as?

pyrimidines

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Cytosine is always paired with which nitrogen-contiaining base?

Guanine

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The nitrogen-containing base Adenine is always paired with what other base?

Thymine

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What is the name of the channels that allow the nucleus to communicate with the cytoplasm?

endoplasmic reticulum

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What is the name of the large, bean-like structure, also known as the "engines of the cell"?

mitochondria

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Small dot-like structures that consist of 2/3 RNA & 1/3 protein are known as?

Ribosomes

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Ribosomes are the site of?

protein synthesis

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What is the name of the tubes/channels that extend from the nucleus to the cell membrane & serve as a connection to the outside of the cell?

golgi apparatus

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The small pea-like sacs that are resposible for digesting cellular wates & are known as the "garbage disposals".

lysosomes

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The act of a single cell or group of cells reproducing and multiplying in number.

cell proliferation

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What cells of the human body undergo mitosis?

somatic cells

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Genetic/reproductive cells undergo what type of cell proliferation?

meiosis

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This phase of the cell cycle is made up of G1, S, & G2 phases & is known as a period of growth & rest of the cell between divisions?

interphase

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This phase of the cell cycle is also known as the pre-DNA synthesis phase?

G1 phase

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During the cell cycle, which phase is considered to be the DNA synthesis phase?

S phase

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What is the name of the cell cycle phase that is considered post-DNA synthesis?

G2 phase

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This phase starts the division process, the nucleus swells & the DNA becomes more prominent.

prophase

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During this phase, chromosomes appear & are lined up along the equator of the nucleus.

metaphase

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During this phase, the chromosomes are split & pulled to their respective poles.

anaphase

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What attaches to the chromatids & pulls them to their respective poles?

mitotic spindles

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The final phase of mitosis is known as _________, whish is when the nucleus starts taking shape & the cytoplasm divides equally.

telophase

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Mitosis results in?

2 daughter cells

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During what phase of mitosis can the process be stopped & chromosomes can be studied?

metaphase

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Somatic cells contain how many total chromosomes?

46

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Meiosis is the process whereby genetic cells undergo what?

reduction division

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Genetic cells contain how many chromosomes?

23

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Meiosis results in what?

23 SINGULAR chromosomes

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During the second division of meiosis, some chromosomal material is exchanged among chromatids through a process called?

crossing over

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Human cells are most sensitive to radiation exposure during the M phase of mitosis. What is the next most sensitive phase of the cell cycle?

G1-S transition

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What is the region on a chromosome that joins two sister chromatids?

centromere

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These are the most sensitive types of cells in the body

stem cells

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What are the names of the 2 French scientists who theorized & observed that the radiosensitivity of of living tissue varies with the maturity as well as the metabolic & proliferation rate?

Bergonie & Tribondeau

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If a radiation response occurs within minutes or days after the exposure, it is classified as an?

early effect

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If a radiation response occurs months or years after the exposure, it is classified as a?

late effect

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What is the term that is defined as the relative constancy of the internal environment?

homeostasis

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This term is defined as a measure of the rate at which energy is tranfered from ionizing radiation to soft tissue.

Linear Energy Transfer (LET)

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What is the LET for diagnostic x-rays?

3 keV/micrometer

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This term is defined as the ability of radiation to produce biologic damage.

Relative Biologic Effectiveness (RBE)

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What is the RBE for diagnostic x-rays?

1

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As LET _________, the ability to produce biologic damage _________.

increases; increases

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LET & RBE have what type of relationship?

direct relationship

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High LET is = to

high RBE

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Low LET is = to

low RBE

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______ hits are associated with high LET & they interact with the target molecule/DNA.

direct hits

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________ hits are associated with low LET & they interact with water molecules.

indirect hits

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