Exercise physiology lecture 5

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What is the point of the endocrine/nervous system?

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1

What is the point of the endocrine/nervous system?

To control

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2

Do women have more testosterone or estrogen?

testosterone

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3

Why do things like pregnancy blockers and tren take multiple sessions to kick in?

They are lipid soluble hormones

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4

Since vitamin D is lipid soluble what is it considered?

a hormone

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5

What is the base for a steroid hormone?

cholesterol/lipid

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6

Can steroid hormones diffuse into the cell? If so, why or why not?

Yes, they are lipid soluble

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7

What are some examples of steroid hormones?

Aldosterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estrogen

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8

What is the base for nonsteroid hormones?

amino acids

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9

Can nonsteroid hormones enter cells? If so why or why not?

No, they are water soluble

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10

How do steroid hormones send signals?

They bind to receptors on the outside of a cell, and that releases a second messenger to carry out the task

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11

What type of hormones only have first messengers?

Steroid hormones

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12

Why do steroid hormones only have first messengers?

They diffuse directly into the cell

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13

Why do nonsteroid hormones have second messengers?

They cannot diffuse into cell, so second receptors release into the cell to complete the action

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14

How do hormones cause change in the body?

They roam in blood till they find their proper receptors

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15

What does negative feedback do?

Return the body to homeostais

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16

What does positive feedback do?

Pushes the body farther from homeostasis

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17

What hormones are released from the anterior pituitary gland?

Growth/GH, Follicle stimulating/FSH, Luteinizing/LH

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18

What does growth hormone GH do?

Promotes growth/maintains organs, bones, etc

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19

What stimulates the release of growth hormone?

Growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH

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20

What stimulates the release of FSH and LH?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH

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21

What does FSH/LH do?

Causes release of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

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22

What hormone would you use as a puberty blocker?

GHRH

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23

How does excessive GHRH inhibit puberty?

It decreases androgen production

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24

What can occur if a women exercises too much without proper nutrient supplementation?

Amenorrhea

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25

Why can a women experience amenorrhea if they exercise without proper nutrient supplementation?

The brain inhibits FSH because the body cannot support a baby

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26

What hormone(s) are released from the adrenal gland? (no SNS)

Cortisol

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27

Is cortisol a slow acting or fast acting hormone?

Slow acting

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28

Why is cortisol a slow acting hormone? (base wise)

It is a lipid base

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29

What does cortisol do in the body?

Suppresses immune system, promotes/catabolizes protein breakdown, promotes/catabolizes fat breakdown

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30

Why does cortisol inhibit immune system and breakdown fat/protein?

To increase energy in the body during stressful situations

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31

Why might you get sick at the end of a stressful semester?

Cortisol suppressing the immune system

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32

What are the steps to stimulating the release of cortisol?

Corticotropic hormone (CrH) goes to adrenal medulla, releasing ACTH

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33

What hormone(s) are released from the adrenal glands with SNS intervention?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

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34

What does epi/norepi do?

Increase HR, increases contractility, bronchodilate, vasoconstricts/increases BP, catabolize fat tissue, muscle/liver break down glycogen

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35

What is contractility?

How hard the heart beats, more contractility allows for more blood to be pumped in the body

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36

Is the pancreas an endocrine or exocrine organ?

Both

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37

What hormone(s) are released from the pancreas?

Insulin and glucagon

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38

What cells produce insulin?

Beta

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39

What cells produce glucagon?

Alpha

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40

If blood sugar rises what hormone increases?

Insulin

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41

If blood sugar decreases what hormone increases?

Glucagon

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42

What does glucagon target?

Liver

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43

Why does glucagon target the liver?

It converts glycogen into sugar through glycogenolysis and releases the sugar

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44

Is the endocrine system interconnected? Why or why not?

No, all glands are isolated but can influence each other

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45

What releases hormones to the anterior pituitary?

Hypothalamus

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46

When is testosterone highest?

The morning

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47
<p>What causes the increase in glucose during this exercise?</p>

What causes the increase in glucose during this exercise?

Cortisol releases fat and protein that then gets converted into sugar

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48
<p>Why is insulin decreasing during while this person is working out?</p>

Why is insulin decreasing during while this person is working out?

The GLUT-4 exercise pathway is being used

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49

When is ATP highest?

At rest

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50

When is AMP highest?

While exercising

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51

What does cAMP do?

Promotes sugar breakdown, stopping storage of glycogen

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52

What does active synthase do?

Turns glucose into glycogen

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53

What does active phosphorylase do?

Breaks down glycogen into glucose

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54

How does adding a phosphate affect phosphorylase?

It actives it

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55

How does adding a phosphate affect synthase?

It deactivates it

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56

Do active synthase and phosphorylase run at the same time?

No

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57

Why don’t active synthase and phosphorylase run at the same time?

It is not energy efficient

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58

What hormone is made in the kidney?

Erythropoietin/EPO

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59

Where does EPO go?

The red bone marrow in the epiphysis of bone

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60

What does EPO do?

Stimulates RBC production to increase O2 transport

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61

What stimulates EPO production?

A decrease in O2 in the blood

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62

Why does EPO production occur in the kidney?

Kidneys filter all the blood so they constantly detect O2 levels

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63

Why would someone train in high altitude, what affects would it have?

To increase EPO and have increase O2 transport at regular altitude

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64

How often do all RBCs get cycled through?

Every 4 months

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65

What are the four main hormones of exercise?

Epi/norepi, cortisol, and glucagon

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66

What is not hormone of exercise?

Insulin

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67

As exercise intensity increases what happens to hormonal response?

It increases

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68

How would glycogen depletion affect the body?

Decreased ability to perform exercises

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69

If glycogen falls too low what would be used to supplement it? And what hormone is would do it?

Fat and protein, cortisol

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70

If you increase the rate of exercise intensity with low glycogen, how is RER affected and why?

RER increases because carbs are burning

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71
<p>Which line has higher intensity?</p>

Which line has higher intensity?

A

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72
<p>What is an estimated RPE for line A?</p>

What is an estimated RPE for line A?

15 or more

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73
<p>What is an estimated RPE for line B?</p>

What is an estimated RPE for line B?

8-10

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74
<p>Which line is using more carbs?</p>

Which line is using more carbs?

A

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75
<p>Which line has more epi/norepi?</p>

Which line has more epi/norepi?

A

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76
<p>Which line has higher insulin levels?</p>

Which line has higher insulin levels?

B

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