BASC103A - Module 3 (Animal Behavior)

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Animal behavior

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Animal behavior

Actions performed by an animal in response to internal/external stimuli

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Ingestive

  • eating action; eating of food & drinking water to sustain body energy throughout the day

(form of innate behavior)

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Internal Stimuli

stimuli from its own body signals

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Indicators of Good Animal Welfare

  • Alertness & curiosity

  • Normal range of activities

  • Interaction w/other members

  • Interaction w/humans

  • Playing

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Maintenance and Reproductive Behavior

2 Categories of Normal Behavior

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Reflex, Instinct, Ingestive, Body care, Thermoregulatory, Taxis, Migration, Aestivation, Hibernation

Enumerate the 9 Forms of Innate Behavior

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Reflex

  • automatic/autonomic response; involves no conscious control

  • Ex: normal reflex when touching hot is to pull away

(form of innate behavior)

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Social Behavior

Maintenance behavior that is related with the animal’s ability to communicate w/others

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Flehmen reaction

rolling/curling of lips when pheromones are smelled (dogs, hamsters)

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Innate Behavior

Maintenance behavior that is genetically determined & animals are born w/this ability

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Instinct

  • complex innate behavior/response; not taught

  • Ex: suckling in newborn; nest building in birds

(form of innate behavior)

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Significance of animal behavior in animal welfare

  • To know the animal’s feelings

  • To know the animal’s choices

  • To know the animal’s reactions

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Territorial

  • way of defending a physical space against other members of its species; prevents over-crowding & increases survival in case of fighting

  • Territorial dogs may be aggressive resulting to biting

(form of social behavior)

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Thermoregulatory

  • to attain optimum body temperature

  • Animals would take shade under trees to avoid sun heat; would pant

  • When cold they will shiver; will result to herd-gallop to raise body temperature

(form of innate behavior)

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Causes of agonistic behavior

  • Formation of new groups; results to fighting specially in cattle

  • Entry of new individual in a well-established group

  • Competition for limited food supply & bedding space

  • Competition for mates

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Browser

term used to describe animals that eats above the plant

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Reproductive Behavior

essential for the perpetuation of new individuals; there are certain behavioral traits in female & male animals

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tongue rolling

form of abnormal behavior that's seen in calves or young cattle; associated w/psychological behavioral frustration

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Grazer

term used to describe animals that eats at the middle of the plant

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External/Environmental Stimuli

stimulus from environment

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Body care

  • to attain comfort (autogrooming vs allogrooming); done to prevent disease & parasitism; includes scratching & licking; sick animals wouldn’t clean their bodies

(form of innate behavior)

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Rooter

term used to describe animals that eats below the plant

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Indicators of Poor Animal Welfare

  • Limited range of activity

  • Panting or sweating (indicates hot environmental temperature)

  • Huddling & shivering (indicates cold temperature)

  • Depression & inactivity (indicates sickness)

  • Abnormal fear or aggression w/humans

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Taxis

  • reaction to specific environmental stimulus

(form of innate behavior)

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Ethology

branch of animal science that deals w/ behavior; useful for animal welfare

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Migration

  • seasonal movement of animals to other places; usually to warmer areas

(form of innate behavior)

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Habituation

  • no punishment or reward involved; animal is repeatedly given stimulus

  • Ex: horses wouldn’t move when cars go by

(form of learned behavior)

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Wallowing

playing in mud or water to cool down

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Hibernation

  • state of deep sleep; body temp, oxygen consumption & breathing rate decreases to conserve energy (bats, hamster, hedgehogs, bears)

(form of innate behavior)

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Trial & Error

  • animal keeps trying until correct response is made to attain the reward; reward is expected

(form of learned behavior)

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feather picking

form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/loss of diet, poor ventilation (chickens)

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Agonistic Behavior

all forms of behavior in animals which is in conflict w/other animals

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Phototaxis

meaning light; movement of organism towards a light source

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Courtship dances

  • body movement to attract mates specially in spiders, birds

(form of social behavior)

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Learned Behavior

Maintenance behavior that is acquired from practice/experience

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Habituation, Imprinting, Classical Conditioning, Trial & Error

Enumerate the 4 Forms of Learned Behavior

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Pheromonal, Courtship dances, Territorial

Enumerate the 3 Forms of Social Behavior

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Aestivation

  • state of reduced metabolism; occurs to animals living in intense heat (done by snails & slugs)

(form of innate behavior)

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Maintenance Behavior

This behavior has 3 subtypes: innate, learned, & social

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Imprinting

  • social attachment to object during “critical period”

  • Ex: when you pick a baby bird, it may think you are the mother

(form of learned behavior)

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head shaking

form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/irritation & nervousness (chickens)

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Behavioral Pattern

  • Organized segment of behavior having a special function may be developed through playing or social contact w/other animals

  • Under influence of environmental stimulation & genetic factors

  • Varies with sexes, breed, strain, individual, & climate, & other factors

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Classical Conditioning

  • associated w/a specific stimulus; animals learn to associate one event to another event; association of closely related events

  • In Pavlov’s experiment, ringing of bell (acts as a stimuli) indicates food

(form of learned behavior)

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Tail-biting

form of abnormal behavior that's associated w/stress & discomfort (pigs)

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Pheromonal

  • communicates through chemical messengers; associated w/pheromone chemicals

  • Ex: ants would communicate through pheromones

(form of social behavior)

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Female reproductive behaviors (during estrus)

  • Restlessness, bellowing, & twitching of tail (specially in cows)

  • Urinating stance (for horses); frequent urination is also evident

  • seeking for the opposite sex (in sheep)

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Male reproductive behaviors (increased libido)

  • Nosing of perineum (smelling of vulva)

  • Flicking out of tongue

  • Bleating (in goats, sheep)

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Bleating

producing of unusual low-pitch sounds (in goats, sheep)

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Avenues for the prevention of abnormal behavior

  • Improve/alter housing

  • Provide adequate space to avoid overcrowding

  • Suitable beddings

  • Adequate exercise

  • Adequate roughages & balanced diet

  • Separation of sick or injured animals from healthy ones

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Chemotaxis

movement of organism towards a chemical source

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Abnormal/Anomalous Behavior

repeated behavior aberrations

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crib-biting/cribbing

form of abnormal behavior that's seen in horses; associated w/stress & gastrointestinal irritability

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Causes of Abnormal Behaviors

  • Overcrowding

  • Monotonous environment

  • Suppression of natural instinct

  • Inadequate exercise

  • Malnutrition & nutritional imbalance

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